How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Grape

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Grapes to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 7/15, corrected 4/17)

In this Guideline:


Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, western grapeleaf skeletonizer) M L M/H I moderate to predatory mites and affected insects
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A broad (insects) — 7 — 8 II moderate
azadirachtin (Debug Turbo) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
bifenazate (Acramite) 20D narrow (mites) L L L II short
buprofezin (Applaud) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) L H9 L II long
carbaryl (Sevin) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban Advanced) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) M L L III short
clothianidin (Belay) 4A lygus, aphids M/H M/H I long
cryolite (Kryocide) 8C narrow (foliage chewing insects) L L L III short to none
cyflumetofen (Nealta) 25A
dinotefuran (Venom) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I short
disodium tetraborate (Gourmet Liquid Ant Bait) un
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H8 L II short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites, some insects) H L L III long for predatory mites
hexythiazox (Onager) 10A narrow (mites) L L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects, cutworms) L I
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars, plant bugs) L L L I moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects, mites) M M M III short to none
kaolin clay (Surround) narrow (sucking insects) III
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
metaflumizone bait (Altrevin) 22B III
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II none
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
narrow range oil (Omni Supreme) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L II short to none
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyrethrin (Pyganic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide (Pyrenone) 3A/— broad (insects) I short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem Ant Bait) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H9 L III long
S-methoprene bait (Tango) 7A III
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, white_flies, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/M M10 M/H II moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips) L M10 L/M II short
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, scale, psyllids, whiteflies) L L L II short
thiamethoxam (Platinum) 4A narrow (sucking insects) —7 M I moderate
 
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 Kills lady beetles.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Grape
UC ANR Publication 3448

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, UC ANR Publication 3386.

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