Agriculture: Eggplant Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities Of Insecticides And Miticides Used In Eggplants To Natural Enemies And Honey Bees

Common name (Example trade name and formulation) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites) M L M/H I  
acetamiprid (Assail 70WP) 4A moderate (sucking insects/larvae) 7 8 II moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
buprofezin (Courier SC) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) L H9 L II long
clothianidin (Belay) 4A lygus, aphids M/L M/L I long
esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L III short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
flonicamid (Beleaf) 9C L L III short
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects, armyworms) L I
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short
malathion (Malathion 8) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
methomyl (Lannate SP, LV) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
novaluron (Rimon) 15 narrow (caterpillars) L L I short
oxamyl (Vydate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
permethrin (Pounce WP) 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L10 L L II short
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L II short
pyrethrin (PyGanic EC) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
pyriproxyfen (Knack) 7C narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L H9 L II short
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids) M M11 L/M II short to moderate
spiromesifen (Oberon 2SC) 23 narrow (psyllids, mites, whiteflies) II moderate
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, scale, psyllids, whiteflies) L L L II short
tebufenozide (Confirm) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
thiamethoxam (Actara, Platinum) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 12 M I moderate
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 Kills lady beetles.
10 Rating depends on rate used.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after.
12 May cause increase in spider mite numbers.

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 05/16