Agriculture: Caneberries Pest Management Guidelines

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Caneberries to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action 1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
azadirachtin (AZA-Direct, Neemix, Azatin) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (mites) L L L II short
bifenthrin (Brigade, Capture) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin F) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR Plus 1A broad (insects, mites) L H L I long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
cinnamaldehyde (Cinnacure) un narrow (mites) III short
cottonseed/clove/garlic oils (GC-Mite) un narrow (mites) II short
diazinon-foliar (Diazinon 50 W) 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) L L L II short to moderate
horticultural oil (Organic JMS stylet
un broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L II short
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) un broad (insects, mites) M M M III short
malathion (Malathion 8) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
spinetoram (Delegate WG) 5 narrow (caterpillars,
L M7 L/M II moderate8
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars) L M7 L/M II short to moderate7
sulfur un narrow (mites) L/H L H III short
tebufenozide (Confirm 2F) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3A broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high     M = moderate     L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers ("un"= unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly larva, beetles) when sprayed and shortly after (8-24 hrs).
8 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Text Updated: 06/15