How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Avocado

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides, Miticides, and Molluscicides Used in Avocados to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 9/16, updated 9/16)

In this Guideline:


Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, thrips) M M7 M/H I moderate to predatory mites and long to affected insects
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II none
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
Bifenthrin/zeta-cypermethrin (Hero) 3A/3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
boric acid bait (Gourmet) 8D narrow (ants) L L L III none
copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture) trunk spray narrow (snails) L L7 L III long as a barrier
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H11 L II short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I long
iron phosphate (Sluggo) narrow (snails and slugs) L H7 L III short
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
oil, narrow-range broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L II short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3A moderate (insects) M M I short
pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide (Pyrenone) 3A/— moderate (insects) M M I short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem) 7C broad (aphids, caterpillars, flies, leafminers, scale, whiteflies) L H10 L II long
sabadilla (Veratran-D) narrow (feeding thrips) L L L II short
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, thrips) M M8 L/M II moderate9
spinosad (Success, Entrust) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, thrips) M M8 L/M II moderate8
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, scale, psyllids, whiteflies) L L L II short
sulfur un narrow (mites) L/H L H III moderate
thiamethoxam (Actara - foliar) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 12 M/H M/H I moderate
H = high     M = moderate     L = low     — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows:
  1. I-Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering;
  2. II-Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations;
  3. III-No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations.
For more information, see Bee precaution pesticide ratings .
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Toxic to predatory decollate snail.
8 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
9 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Avocado
UC ANR Publication 3436

General Information

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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