How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Asparagus

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides Used in Asparagus to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/09, updated 2/12, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2(affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
carbaryl (Sevin) bait 1A narrow (cutworms, army-worms, etc.) L L L III short
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR Plus 1A broad (insects) L H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects) H H H I moderate
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3A broad (insects) L H H I long
petroleum oils un broad (exposed insects) L7 L L II short
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids) L L L II short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, aphids) L/H M8 L/M II moderate9
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, aphids) L/H M8 L/M II short to moderate8
H = high     M = moderate     L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Rating depends on rate used.
8 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5–7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
9 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Asparagus
UC ANR Publication 3435

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control.

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