Turfgrass

Agricultural pest management


Herbicide Treatment Table

(Reviewed 9/09, updated 9/09, pesticides updated 12/16)

In this Guideline: More about weeds in turfgrass:

Common name Amount per acre Ag Use
REI‡
NonAg Use
PHI‡
(Example trade name)   (hours) (days)

UPDATED: 12/16
Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
Bee precaution pesticide ratings
The following are listed alphabetically. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to environmental impact, resistance management, the pesticide's properties, and application timing. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read the label of the product being used.
 
PREPLANT
 
A. DAZOMET* 275 lb a.i./acre or
7.92 oz a.i./100 sq ft
   
  (Basamid G) 277 lb/acre or
8 oz/100 sq ft
See label
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
  COMMENTS: Soil-applied, granular fumigant for control of annual weeds. Apply directly to the soil and mix 6 inches deep with a power tiller. Activity is better if irrigated after tilling in. Vaporproof tarping also improves weed control. Better on sandy soils than on clay soils. Can seed in 3 weeks if temperature is over 60°F and soil is moist but not wet.
 
B. METAM SODIUM* 160–319.5 lb a.i./acre or 3.67–7.33 lb a.i./1000 sq ft    
  (Vapam HL) 37.5–75 gal/acre See label
  COMMENTS: Preirrigate soil so seeds and juvenile perennial propagules absorb water. Apply as soil begins to dry; soil temperature should be at least 50°F at 1 inch for best results. Rototilling before treatment will enhance control. Can apply by sprinkler, drip, soil injection, or by soil bedding equipment. Certified applicators must have successfully completed a special "Soil Fumigant Training Program" and follow MANDATORY GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAPs) as stipulated on the label. Apply in water on calm day; follow immediately with sprinkler irrigation to seal the soil surface or, preferably, cover with vaporproof covering (sometimes mandatory). Seed in 2 weeks on light sandy soils, in 3 to 4 weeks on heavier clay or organic soils. Extend waiting period if temperature is below 60°F. Two applications are usually required to eradicate bermudagrass, nutsedge, or kikuyugrass. Fumigants such as metam sodium are a prime source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are a major air quality issue.
  . . . or . .      
  METAM POTASSIUM:
POTASSIUM N-METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE**
160–319.5 lb a.i./acre or 3.67–7.33 lb a.i./1000 sq ft    
  (K-Pam HL) 30–62 gal/acre See label
  COMMENTS: Preirrigate soil so seeds and juvenile perennial propagules absorb water. Apply as soil begins to dry; soil temperature should be at least 50°F at 1 inch for best results. Rototilling before treatment will enhance control. Can apply by sprinkler, drip, soil injection, or by soil bedding equipment. Certified applicators must have successfully completed a special "Soil Fumigant Training Program" and follow MANDATORY GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAPs) as stipulated on the label. Apply at least 14 to 21 days before a new crop is planted. Cultivation should be done 5 to 7 days after treatment if planting is to occur within 14 to 21 days after treatment. Test treated soil before planting. Tarping may be required in some parts of CA. Fumigants such as K-Pam HL are a prime source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are a major air quality issue.
 
C. GLYPHOSATE 2–4 lb a.i.    
  (Roundup Weathermax) 1.7–3.5 qt 4 Until dry
  (Roundup Pro) 2.66–5.33 qt 4 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9
  COMMENTS: Glyphosate is a nonselective, foliar-applied postemergence herbicide that will eliminate nearly all established weeds and turf species from a site before seedbed preparation. It has no preemergence activity on emerging weeds or turf species. Use the lower rate for annual weeds and the higher rate for perennial weeds. Apply to actively growing weeds that are not stressed. Little mallow, burning nettle, and filarees are only partially controlled; some Conyza species, such as horseweed (marestail) and hairy fleabane, have developed resistance to glyphosate.
 

POSTPLANT before weeds emerge (PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDES)

 
A. ATRAZINE* 1–2 lb a.i.    
  (Drexel Atrazine 4L) 2–4 pt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 5
  COMMENTS: Used for control of annual broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses in bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustine, or zoysiagrass turf. Do not use on other turf types or injury will result. Labeled for fairways, commercial and residential lawns, and sod farms. May be applied up to 30 days before cutting or lifting sod. Do not apply in light textured (sandy) soils where tree or shrub roots may absorb the herbicide. Restricted use pesticide due to ground and surface water contamination concerns.
 
B. BENSULIDE 7.5–10 lb a.i.    
  (Bensumec) 1.875–2.5 gal 0 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 8
  COMMENTS: Primarily used for preemergence control of annual grasses in most species of established turfgrasses (except bentgrass in CA). It can also be used in dichondra at seeding or any time thereafter. It is only available to certified applicators, but it can be applied to residential lawns as well as golf courses. Not for use in parks, recreational areas, or other public sites. Water in immediately after application with 0.5 to 1 inch of water. For annual bluegrass, crabgrass, or goosegrass control, apply 2 to 3 weeks before initial germination. If treating for both annual bluegrass and annual, warm-season grass weeds, then up to three properly timed applications may be needed per year. Rates of application are dependent upon the number of applications made per year. The maximum label rate is 18 fl oz per 1000 sq ft per year in two or more applications, depending on the weed species and the degree of infestation.
 
C. DCPA 10 lb a.i.    
  (Dacthal Flowable) 13.33 pt 12
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to many species of established turfgrass before annual weeds germinate. For crabgrass control apply in late winter 2 to 3 weeks before initial crabgrass germination. Exact timing varies by location in California (Jan. for southern California, early to mid-Feb. for Central Valley and Central Coast area, and mid-Feb. to March 1 for Northern California). For annual bluegrass control, apply at the end of Aug. or early Sept. Also controls several broadleaf weeds. Incorporate with 0.5 inch water as soon as possible and at least within 3 to 5 days after application. Early spring applications may be made to new turfgrass seedlings after the grasses have exhibited a uniform greening of the newly sprouted grass, preferably when 1 to 2 inches in height. These applications control crabgrass without injury to newly emerged grass. Only Dacthal Flowable is labeled for use in Ornamental Turf (golf courses, athletic fields, cemeteries, parks, non-residential lawns, institutional areas, and sod farms). Do not use on golf course greens or low mowed bentgrass, or dichondra. Wait at least 60 days before overseeding. Dacthal W-75 (75% wettable powder) formulation is no longer registered for use in turfgrass.
 
D. DITHIOPYR 0.25–0.5 lb a.i.    
  (Dimension 2EW) 1–2 pt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to many species of established turf 2 to 3 weeks before annual weeds germinate. Apply in late winter to early spring for crabgrass, spurge, and oxalis, or in fall for annual bluegrass. May be applied as a single application in spring or fall, or as a split application with half being applied in spring and half in fall. Do not apply more than 1.5 lb a.i. per year. Has postemergence activity on crabgrass seedlings up to the 5-leaf stage. Do not apply within 3 months of seeding, overseeding, or sprigging. Labeled for use in most turfgrass sites including residential lawns. Do not use on golf course putting greens. Safe for use in most turfgrass species, however a few cultivars are sensitive. Consult label for specific turf restrictions.
 
E. ETHOFUMESATE Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Prograss, Poa Constrictor)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 8
  COMMENTS: A translocated, selective herbicide that controls several annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Primary use is annual bluegrass management. Has both preemergence and early (two-leaf stage) postemergence activity and is most effective in programs that use both timings. May be used on home lawns, golf courses (not putting greens) and is safe for most turfgrasses (except zoysiagrass and fine fescue) but must be applied by a licensed applicator. See label for cultivar tolerances of turf species.
 
F. INDAZIFLAM Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Specticle 20WSP or Specticle Flo)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 29
  COMMENTS: For use on established warm-season grasses only. Not safe for cool-season turfgrasses (including tall fescue) or kikuyugrass. A preemergence herbicide with some postemergent activity. Controls annual grasses, annual sedges, and many broadleaf weeds by inhibiting root development. Limited early postemergence activity on annual bluegrass, crabgrass, and oxalis is enhanced with 0.5% v/v methylated seed oil. Labeled for established turf areas including golf courses (roughs and fairways), athletic fields, residential and commercial lawns, parks, cemeteries, and sod farms. To move the herbicide into the soil: apply 0.25 inch water within 2 days after application. Provides long season weed control, so do not reseed for 8 to 12 months.
 
G. ISOXABEN 0.5–0.9975 lb a.i.    
  (Gallery 75 DF) 0.66–1.33 lb 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 21
  COMMENTS: Apply to many species of established turf in late summer or early fall before winter annual weeds germinate. Provides 6 to 8 months of control of many broadleaf weeds including: henbit, speedwells, oxalis, brassbuttons, and knotweed. A spring application helps control spurge and other summer broadleaf annuals. Follow application with at least 0.5 inch water. Not for use on putting greens or grass grown for seed.
 
H. MESOTRIONE Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Tenacity)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
  COMMENTS: A systemic preemergence and postemergence herbicide for the selective contact and residual control of weeds in mostly cool-season turfgrass species. When applied, preemergence weeds absorb the herbicide during emergence from the soil. Activate with 0.15 inch water within 10 days of preemergence application. Primarily used postemergence to remove crabgrass and yellow nutsedge from cool-season grasses. Two postemergence applications with a non-ionic surfactant are needed. When used postemergence, susceptible weeds absorb the herbicide through foliar contact and soil absorption. Weed growth ceases and then foliage turns white due to loss of chlorophyll; death may take up to 3 weeks. Can also cause temporary whitening of turfgrass foliage. Symptoms appear 5 to 7 days after application and last for several weeks. However a repeat application to the same site causes less whitening of the plant tissue. Can also be used preemergence when renovating or seeding cool-season grasses. Labeled for use in golf courses (except putting greens), athletic fields, parks, cemeteries, commercial and residential lawns, and sod farms. Consult the label for turfgrass species restrictions.
 
I. NAPROPAMIDE 2–3 lb a.i.    
  (Devrinol 50DF) 4–6 lb 24
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 15
  COMMENTS: Apply at seeding or on established dichondra; can also be used on bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and tall fescue. Principally for control of weedy grasses but will control some broadleaf weeds. A split application of 2 lb a.i. can be applied for crabgrass and 2 lb a.i. for goosegrass; apply 8 to 10 weeks apart. Apply in early fall for annual bluegrass control. Follow applications with a minimum of 0.5 inch of water to wash material from the leaves and into the soil. Do not reseed or overseed within six months after application.
 
J. ORYZALIN 1.5–2 lb a.i.    
  (Surflan) 1.5–2 qt See comments Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: For use on warm-season grasses and tall fescue. Although labeled for use in tall fescue, oryzalin should not be applied to tall fescue under stress or roots will be inhibited. For this reason other preemergence herbicides are recommended. Apply on established turf 2 to 3 weeks before annual weeds germinate. Use low rate of application for annual bluegrass control in late summer or early fall. Use high rate in late winter or early spring before germination of summer annual weeds. Do not aerate or verticut after application. Do not use on bluegrass, bentgrass, or ryegrass turf. Long residual from a summer application may prohibit fall overseeding of a cool-season grass in Bermuda turf. REI for Surflan is 24 hours.
 
K. ORYZALIN/BENEFIN 2–3 lb a.i.    
  (XL 2G) 100–150 lb 24 Until dust settles
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBERS1: 3/3
  COMMENTS: A granular formulation that combines two preemergence herbicides for increased weed activity in warm-season grasses and tall fescue. Apply on established turf before annual weeds germinate. Do not aerate or verticut after application. Do not use on bluegrass, bentgrass, or ryegrass.
 
L. OXADIAZON 2–4 lb a.i.    
  (Ronstar G) 100–200 lb 12 Until dry
  (Ronstar 50 WSP) 4–8 lb 12 Until dry
  (Ronstar Flo) 2.5–5 qt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: The granule formulation can be used safely on most grass species, but bentgrass has some restrictions. Some foliar injury may be observed if the granules are applied to wet foliage or the herbicide is not washed from the leaves after application. Apply these formulations at least 2 weeks before turf greens in spring. Is only fairly effective for control of prostrate spurge or creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis) in California, but does control many other broadleaf and grass weeds. Ronstar's mode of action is different from most other preemergence herbicides that are root inhibitors. Ronstar is a shoot inhibitor, which is useful on newly sprigged bermudagrass, when spread by creeping stems and root formation is desirable. Ronstar may be used in fairways, parks, golf courses, and non-residential lawns. Do not use on newly seeded dichondra or golf course greens. It is only available to licensed applicators.
 
M. PENDIMETHALIN Label rates 24 Until dry
  (Pre-M 3.3 EC, Pendulum, Pendulum AquaCap)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to many species of established turf 2 to 3 weeks before annual weeds germinate. Useful in the control of many broadleaf and grass weeds including: crabgrass, foxtail, creeping woodsorrel (oxalis), and spurge. Use lower rate for control of annual bluegrass in fall or as a split application for control of crabgrass or spurge in late winter and early summer. Do not aerate or verticut after application. Do not overseed with grasses for 8 to 12 weeks after application. Do not apply on bentgrass. Time application with rainfall or apply 0.5" irrigation as soon after application as possible.
 
N. PRODIAMINE 0.65–1. 495 lb a.i.    
  (Barricade 65 WG) 1.0–2.3 lb 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: Unknown.
  COMMENTS: Apply to many species of established turf 2 to 3 weeks before weeds germinate to control annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds, including creeping woodsorrel (oxalis) and spurge. It is very insoluble in water and lasts for a long time, giving good control. It will interfere with overseeding of grasses for 4 to 10 months, depending on the rate used. Turfgrass must be well established before use or roots will be inhibited. May thin turfgrass under stressed conditions, heavy wet soils, or shaded areas where growth is slow. Not for use on putting greens.
 
O. PRONAMIDE* 0.5–1.495 lb a.i.    
  (Kerb 50WP) 1–3 lb 24 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Used for preemergence or early postemergence control of annual bluegrass in bermudagrass turf; the higher rate gives longer residual control. Do not use on seedling, newly sprigged, or newly sodded turf. Most effective in late fall at, or just before emergence. For postemergence control it takes 14 to 21 days before results are evident. Do not overseed with annual ryegrass within 90 days of treating with pronamide. Controls annual bluegrass slowly by inhibiting root development and thus reducing the weed vigor. Best control is accomplished when annual bluegrass is young and before seed head stage. Do not treat where the herbicide can move into sensitive cool-season grass species, do not apply to a bermudagrass turfgrass that has been overseeded with a cool-season grass, and do not overseed with cool-season species for 90 days following treatment. Also used during spring to selectively remove overseeded rye from warm-season grasses at 50% greenup. Not registered for use on residential lawns and only available to licensed applicators.
 
P. SIDURON 2-6 lb a.i.    
  (Tupersan) 4–12 lb 4 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 7
  COMMENTS: A preemergence herbicide that can be applied at planting, on newly planted or established cool-season turfgrass (fescue, bluegrass or ryegrass) to control seedlings of warm-season weeds, particularly crabgrass, bermudagrass, or kikuyugrass. Most cultivars of creeping bentgrass have shown tolerance to siduron. Can be used in golf courses (fairways, greens, aprons, and tees), ornamental lawns, parks, and sport facilities. Primarily used for turf renovation where bermudagrass or kikuyugrass are killed with glyphosate and a cool-season grass is planted. Also used to remove perennial ryegrass from warm-season grasses, usually bermudagrass, during spring transition. Available to licensed applicators but can be used on residential lawns. Siduron is only available to home gardeners as a weed and feed product for new lawns.
 
Q. SULFENTRAZONE Label rates. NA Until dry
  (Dismiss CA)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: Provides pre- and post-emergence control of many winter and summer annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Will suppress many sedges, including green kyllinga, and yellow and purple nutsedge. Safe for use in most turfgrass species. Can only be applied by licensed or certified applicator. Labeled for use in golf courses (fairways and roughs), athletic fields, commercial and residential lawns, and sod farms. Spray at 25 psi or less. Follow label directions for sprayer cleanout. Do not use with a surfactant or turf injury may occur. Preemergence activity is activated with 0.5 inch of water within 7 days after application and prior to weed germination.
 
POSTPLANT before or after weeds emerge
 
There are a few herbicides for use in turfgrass that have both pre- and postemergence weed control activity. They are dithiopyr, ethofumesate, indaziflam, mesotrione, pronamide, and sulfentrazone. Their descriptions are listed under both categories.
 
POSTPLANT after weeds emerge (POSTEMERGENCE Herbicides)
 
A. BENTAZON* 1 lb a.i.    
  (Bentazon 4, Broadloom) 1 pt 48 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 6
  COMMENTS: Apply in 40 gal water/acre for yellow nutsedge in established turfgrass; thorough coverage is important. The nutsedge should be growing vigorously with good soil moisture. If control is not sufficient, apply a second treatment after 10 to 14 days. Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per season. For optimum control, do not mow 3 to 5 days before or after application. Do not use on newly seeded or sprigged turf or golf course greens. May be mixed with 2,4-D.
 
B. BISPYRIBAC-SODIUM Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Velocity SG)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  COMMENTS: A selective postemergence herbicide for control of annual bluegrass, roughstalk bluegrass, and certain broadleaf weeds in golf courses and sod farms. Used in creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass (permanent, not overseeded), fairways, and tees. Do not use on greens or roughs.
 
C. BROMOXYNIL 0.25–0.5 lb a.i.    
  (Buctril) 1–2 pt See label Until dry
  (Maestro) 0.5–1 pt See label Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 6
  COMMENTS: Apply on young turfgrass after grass has emerged and when broadleaf weeds are in the 3- to 4-leaf stage or up to 6-inch weed height, or on rosette plants before they exceed 1.5 inches in diameter to control broadleaf weeds. On established turf, use lower rate on small weeds and higher rate on large weeds. During periods of high temperature, leaf tip burn may occur on turf. Do not use on bentgrass greens. Apply in at least 20 gal water/acre. May be tank-mixed with other broadleaf materials such as 2,4-D and 2,4-DP, MCPP, dicamba, or MSMA, (note that MSMA allowed uses have changed), or combinations of these materials, depending upon the weed species present.
 
D. CARFENTRAZONE 0.0311 lb a.i.    
  (Quicksilver T & O) 2 fl oz See label Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: Controls a broad spectrum of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in established turfgrass. May cause temporary yellowing of hybrid bermudagrass or tall fescue if under stress. Fast acting. A contact broadleaf herbicide that causes a quick burndown of weeds when temperatures are moderately warm. Control is still achieved in cold weather but takes longer. Does not control chickweed. Can be used in cool- and warm-season turfgrasses. It is also labeled for moss control. Often sold as a prepackaged mix (PowerZone, Speedzone) with other systemic broadleaf weed killers such as 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, or dicamba to control a broader spectrum of broadleaf weeds.
 
E. CARFENTRAZONE/MCPA/MCPP/DICAMBA* Label rates 48 Until dry
  (Power Zone)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBERS1: 14/4/4/4
  COMMENTS: Fast acting. A combination of 4 herbicides for control of a broader spectrum of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in established turfgrass. May cause temporary yellowing of hybrid bermudagrass or tall fescue, especially if they are under stress.
 
F. CLOPYRALID Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Lontrel)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A translocated broadleaf herbicide that controls weeds in the bean and pea family (e.g., clovers), nightshades, and the sunflower family (includes dandelion, most composites, and thistles). Particularly effective on hard to control thistles, such as yellow star thistle. Combined and packaged with triclopyr (Confront) for control of additional broadleaf weeds. Use is restricted to golf courses only where clippings will not be used in off-site composting. Used in cool- and warm-season grasses; apply to healthy well-established turf with well-anchored root system. Susceptible to leaching through soil, so avoid potential groundwater contamination in sensitive sites. Also packaged and sold as a mix (Millennium Ultra 2) with other postemergence, systemic broadleaf herbicides (2,4-D and dicamba).
 
G. DICAMBA* 0.25–0.5 lb a.i./100 gal water    
  (Banvel) 0.5–1 pt 24 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A foliar-applied, translocated broadleaf herbicide that has soil activity. Apply in 40 gal water/acre for control of chickweeds, clovers, prostrate knotweed, pearlwort, red sorrel, curly dock, and suppression of English daisy. Do not apply more than two times per year. The 4 lb acid equivalent/gal formulation can also be used for spot spraying; do not exceed 0.5 lb acid equivalent/acre per season. Active through the soil; do not use where roots of ornamental plants may extend into treated area or spray on tree basins. Spray on calm days to avoid spray drift onto susceptible crops or ornamentals. Do not use on dichondra. Usually formulated in combination with other broadleaf weed herbicides (e.g., 2,4-D, MCPP, MCPA, triclopyr, carfentrazone, quinclorac).
 
H. DITHIOPYR 0.38–0.5 lb a.i.    
  (Dimension 2EW) 1.5–2 pt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: A preemergence herbicide for many grass and broadleaf weeds with some postemergence activity on crabgrass if applied up to the 5-leaf stage (before tillering). Labeled for use in most turfgrass sites including residential lawns, but not golf course putting greens. Safe for use in most turfgrass species, however a few cultivars are sensitive. Consult label for specific turfgrass restrictions. Apply in late winter to early spring for crabgrass, spurge, and oxalis management. Do not apply within 3 months of seeding, overseeding, or sprigging.
 
I. ETHOFUMESATE Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Prograss, Poa Constrictor)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 8
  COMMENTS: A translocated, selective herbicide that controls several annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Primary use is annual bluegrass management. Has both preemergence and early (two-leaf stage) postemergence activity and is most effective in programs that use both timings. May be used on home lawns, golf courses (not putting greens) and is safe for most turfgrasses (except zoysiagrass and fine fescue) but must be applied by a licensed applicator. See label for cultivar tolerances of turf species.
 
J. FENOXAPROP P-ETHYL Label rates NA Until dry
  (Bayer Advanced Bermudagrass or Crabgrass Control for Lawns)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
  COMMENTS: A residential use product, primarily used by homeowners or landscape maintenance workers with a Qualified Applicator Certificate (QAC) category Q. A translocated selective, postemergence herbicide that controls annual grass weeds growing in cool season turf species. It is used to remove crabgrass and suppress bermudagrass growing in fescue, ryegrass, and bluegrass lawns. Only available as a ready to use spray for certain species of residential lawns (Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and fescues).
 
K. FLUAZIFOP Label rates See comments Until dry
  (Fusilade II, Ornamec Over the Top)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
  COMMENTS: A translocated, selective herbicide that controls most annual and perennial grasses but can be used to suppress common and hybrid bermudagrass in tall fescue and zoysiagrass. Will injure most other turfgrass species. Can also be used to renovate a non-fescue turf area. Will not control annual bluegrass. Apply when the grass is young and vigorous and has good soil moisture. Retreatments may be required for hard-to-kill weeds such as bermudagrass, dallisgrass, and kikuyugrass. Will not control nutsedge or green kyllinga. A non-ionic surfactant must always be added to the spray tank. Restricted entry interval for agricultural use for Fusilade is 12 hours; for Ornamec it is 4 hours. Fusilade II can only be used by commercial applicators and is not for use in residential lawns.
 
L. FLUROXYPYR Label rates 24 Until dry
  (Vista XRT)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: Fast acting translocated broadleaf herbicide that controls clovers, medics, oxalis and other broadleaf weeds in most established warm- and cool-season turf species (see label for turf species list). Some restrictions on bermudagrass. Do not use near tree or shrub roots, suckers, or shallow rooted plants to avoid injury. Labeled for use on most turfgrass sites, however do not use on golf course putting greens or tees. Most often combined with other postemergence broadleaf herbicides such as MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba, and triclopyr and sold as Battleship III, Escalade2, Medallion, Elliptical, etc. Do not allow spray drift to contact broadleaf ornamentals or injury may occur.
 
M. FORAMSULFURON Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Revolver)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  Selectively removes cool-season grasses (annual bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, etc.) growing in established bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. It also suppresses dallisgrass. For use by licensed applicators only.
 
N. GLYPHOSATE Label rates See label Until dry
  (RoundUp, KleenUp, various)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9
  COMMENTS: A nonselective, translocated herbicide. Will injure all turfgrass species. Used primarily to control weeds before planting or in turfgrass renovation. Apply to rapidly growing weeds in 20 to 40 gal water/acre or as a spot treatment. For control of annual weeds shorter than 6 inches, apply 1 lb a.i./acre; if 6 inches or taller, apply 1.5 lb a.i./acre. Allow minimum of 3 days between application and renovation or cultivation. For control of perennial weeds, apply 4 to 5 lb a.i./acre to vigorous but nearly mature weeds (bermudagrass in summer-fall; field bindweed, at full bloom). In mowed turfgrass areas, do not mow before application. Delay verticutting, removing sod, or tillage for at least 7 days after treatment. To maximize control, allow the soil surface and root area to dry after verticutting or sod removal before replanting. When turfgrass or ornamentals are to be planted, a follow-up preemergence program is required to control the weed seeds.
 
O. HALOSULFURON 0.031–0.062 lb a.i.    
  (Sedgehammer) 0.66–1.33 oz/acre 12 Until dry
  (Sedgehammer+) 0.5–1 oz/ 1000 sq ft 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  COMMENTS: Apply to established turfgrass in summer for control of yellow and purple nutsedge, and green kyllinga suppression. For optimum control, do not mow 3 to 5 days before or after application. Usually requires two applications starting when sedge is in the 3- to 6-leaf stage followed 6 to 10 weeks later with the second application. Do not use more than two applications per season. This herbicide reacts slowly in the plant so do not expect immediate results. Use 0.25% nonionic surfactant for broadcast applications in equivalent to 100 gal water/acre (2 tsp/gal). Sedgehammer+ formulation includes a non-ionic surfactant in the formulation. Safe for use in cool- and warm-season turfgrass.
 
P. INDAZIFLAM Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Specticle 20WSP, Specticle Flo)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 29
  COMMENTS: For use on established warm-season grasses only. Not safe for cool-season turfgrasses (including tall fescue) or kikuyugrass. A preemergence herbicide with some postemergence activity. Controls annual grasses, annual sedges, and many broadleaf weeds by inhibiting root development. Limited early postemergence activity on annual bluegrass, crabgrass, and oxalis is enhanced with 0.5% v/v methylated seed oil. Labeled for established turf areas including golf courses (roughs and fairways), athletic fields, residential and commercial lawns, parks, cemeteries, and sod farms. To move the herbicide into the soil: apply 0.25 inch water within 2 days after application. Provides long season weed control, so do not reseed for 8 to 12 months.
 
Q. MCPA*      
  (MCPA Amine) Label rates 48 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A translocated, broadleaf herbicide. When used at the same rate as 2,4-D is less effective in the control of most weed species but somewhat safer for the turfgrass. Often mixed, or only available in prepackaged mixes, with active ingredients such as mecoprop, dicamba, carfentrazone, or triclopyr to increase its effectiveness.
 
R. MCPA/TRICLOPYR/DICAMBA*      
  (Cool Power) Label rates 0 0
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4/4/4
  COMMENTS: A combination of three translocated, broadleaf herbicides. Used on golf courses, parks, residential and institutional turf lawns. Effective on dandelions, chickweeds, plantains, oxalis, spurge, and many other broadleaf weeds. Safe in cool-season turfgrasses, except bentgrass greens and tees), bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. St. Augustine is moderately tolerant. Not for use in dichondra. Applied to foliage, but also soil active so avoid spraying shrub and tree roots in lawns.
 
S. MECOPROP Label rates 0 0
  (MCPP-P 4 Amine, Mecomec 2.5)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A translocated, broadleaf herbicide for control of chickweed, clover, prostrate knotweed, pearlwort, and other broadleaf weeds. Spray on calm days to avoid spray drift onto susceptible crops or ornamentals. Safer to use on bentgrass than 2,4-D; do not use on dichondra. Use 1 qt surfactant per 100 gal spray. Frequently formulated into broadleaf herbicide mixes with 2,4-D and dicamba, but also MSMA, fluroxypyr, triclopyr, carfentrazone, or quinclorac.
 
T. MESOTRIONE Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Tenacity)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
  COMMENTS: A systemic preemergence and postemergence herbicide for the selective contact and residual control of weeds. Primarily used postemergence to remove crabgrass and yellow nutsedge from cool-season grasses. Two postemergence applications with a non-ionic surfactant are needed. When used postemergence, susceptible weeds absorb the herbicide through foliar contact and soil absorption. Weed growth ceases and then foliage turns white due to loss of chlorophyll; death may take up to 3 weeks. Can also cause temporary whitening of turfgrass foliage. Symptoms appear 5 to 7 days after application and last for several weeks. However a repeat application to the same site causes less whitening of the plant tissue. Labeled for use in golf courses (except putting greens), athletic fields, parks, cemeteries, commercial and residential lawns, and sod farms. Consult the label for turfgrass species restrictions.
 
U. MSMA 2–4 lb a.i.    
  (MSMA 6 Plus) 2.67–5.33 pt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 17
  COMMENTS: Use allowed on golf courses and sod farms only. Golf courses: only one broadcast application allowed on newly constructed courses; on existing courses use is limited to spot treatment (100 sq ft per spot), not to exceed 25% of the total course in one year. Sod farms: two broadcast applications allowed per crop; a 25 foot buffer strip required for fields bordering permanent water bodies. A selective, translocated herbicide used principally for crabgrass, dallisgrass, nutsedge, and green kyllinga control. Also effective on a few broadleaf weeds. Apply when temperatures are warm (80 to 90°F), but do not apply when temperatures are hot (greater than 90°F or turn injury could result. Temperature and turf type determine degree of selectivity. Make no more than two applications per season at a 30-day interval. Apply uniformly over area regardless of distribution of the weed. Hesitating with sprayer over weedier spots may cause excessive rate and injure or kill the turf. Use lower rates on more sensitive turfgrasses. Repeated applications of high rates reduces kikuyugrass. Turfgrass may be temporarily discolored. Bermudagrass, bluegrass, and zoysiagrass are most tolerant. Bentgrasses and fescues are moderately tolerant. Do not apply to St. Augustinegrass, red fescue, dichondra, or zoysiagrass.
 
V. PENOXSULAM Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Sapphire)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  COMMENTS: A translocated, selective postemergence herbicide for control of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in most cool- and warm-season turfgrasses. Effective on nutsedge, green kyllinga, oxalis, bittercress, and broadleaf plantain. Very effective in controlling English daisy; two applications (3 weeks apart) in late summer-early fall gives the best control of heavy infestations. Spring applications are also successful, but more applications may be needed. Do not use treated grass clippings for mulch. Do not allow herbicide to contact tree suckers or shallow roots. Labeled for use in golf courses, sports fields, residential and commercial lawns, parks, and sod farms. Golf course registration allows for selective removal of overseeded perennial ryegrass from bermudagrass during spring green-up.
 
W. PRONAMIDE* 0.75–1.5 lb a.i.    
  (Kerb 50WP) 1.5–3 lb 24 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: A selective herbicide with pre- and early postemergence weed control on many grass weeds and chickweed. Used for control of annual bluegrass in bermudagrass turf only. Use 0.75 to 1 lb a.i. to control seedling to young tillering stages of annual bluegrass; a higher rate of 1 to 1.5 lb a.i. is needed for seed-forming stages. Do not apply where the herbicide can move into sensitive cool-season grasses. Do not overseed cool-season grasses within 90 days after treatment. It is also used to remove overseeded rye from warm-season grasses at 50% greenup. For use by licensed applicators only.
 
X. QUINCLORAC 0.75 lb a.e.    
  (Drive XLR8) 64 fl oz 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 26
  COMMENTS: A selective, translocated herbicide for control of many broadleaf and grass weeds; primarily used for control of clover and crabgrass (although some biotypes of smooth crabgrass may be resistant). Tips on mowing and adjuvants (methylated seed oil is recommended) are specified on the label. Also formulated and packaged with other broadleaf weed herbicides.
 
Y. QUINCLORAC/SULFENTRAZONE/2,4-D/DICAMBA Label rates 48 Until dry
  (Q4 Plus Turf Herbicide)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBERS1: 26/14/4/4
  COMMENTS: A combination of 4 active ingredients to make a versatile translocated, selective herbicide that will control many troublesome annual and perennial broadleaf and annual grassy weeds in established turfgrass. Controls clovers, composites, oxalis, plantains, spurge, thistles, wild carrot, garlic, and onion. Suppresses yellow nutsedge. Effective on crabgrass (although some biotypes of smooth crabgrass may be resistant). For use on residential and institutional lawns and in sod production. May cause temporary turfgrass yellowing. Adjuvants may result in additional injury. Temperatures above 90°F increase the chance of turf injury. Safe in cool-season turf and fully dormant bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, and buffalograss. Not for use in bentgrasses, St. Augustinegrass, or dichondra. Not for use on greens, tees, or collars of golf courses. Not for use on lawns with desirable clovers or legumes.
 
Z. SULFENTRAZONE Label rates NA Until dry
  (Dismiss CA)      
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14      
  COMMENTS: Provides pre and post-emergent control of many winter and summer annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Will suppress many sedges, including green kyllinga, and yellow and purple nutsedge. Safe for use in most turfgrass species. Can only be applied by licensed or certified applicator. Labeled for use in golf courses (fairways and roughs), athletic fields, commercial and residential lawns, and sod farms. Spray at 25 psi or less. Follow label directions for sprayer cleanout. Do not use with a surfactant or turf injury may occur. Preemergence activity is activated with 0.5 inch of water within 7 days after application and prior to weed germination.
 
 
AA. SULFOSULFURON Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Certainty)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  COMMENTS: A preemergence and postemergence translocated herbicide. Controls many annual and perennial sedges, cool-season grasses (Poa annua, Poa trivialis, tall fescue) and broadleaf weeds growing in established, warm-season, perennial grasses including bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass, centipede, and kikuyugrass. Can also be used to control Poa trivialis (roughstalk bluegrass) in creeping bentgrass. Used to remove tall fescue and sedges from warm-season turfgrasses and Kentucky bluegrass.
 
BB. TRICLOPYR 0.5–1 lb a.e.    
  (Turflon Ester) 0.5–1 qt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A translocated herbicide used to control several broadleaf weeds; it is especially effective on creeping woodsorrel (oxalis) and clovers. Do not use on bentgrass or warm-season turf species such as common and hybrid bermudagrasses and kikuyugrass. Sometimes used in tall fescue lawns to suppress bermudagrass. Has some soil activity, so do not apply high rates or make repeated applications over the root zones of shrubs and trees. Apply in 50 to 100 gal water/acre to vigorously growing broadleaf weeds, preferably in spring or fall. May be retreated 4weeks following the first application for hard-to-kill weeds. To broaden weed spectrum and control dandelion, use a tank mix of amine or low volatile ester of 2,4-D with triclopyr. Do not apply mixture around trees or shrubs, because injury may result. Do not follow application with an irrigation within 4 hrs.
 
CC. TRICLOPYR/CLOPYRALID Label rates 48 Until dry
  (Confront)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBERS1: 4/4
  COMMENTS: A combination of two herbicides for control of a broad spectrum of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in established cool- and warm-season turfgrass with well-anchored root systems. Usage restricted to golf courses only. Do not send clippings to a compost facility or use clippings for mulch or composting. Weeds in the legume family are very sensitive to low label rates, whereas weeds in the sunflower family will require the higher label rates. May injure stoloniferous grasses (bermudagrass and zoysiagrass) especially if the grass is stressed. Do not use on St. Augustinegrass or bentgrass. Do not reapply within 4 weeks and withhold irrigation for at least 6 hours after application. Clopyralid is susceptible to leaching through soil, so avoid potential groundwater contamination in sensitive sites.
 
DD. TRIFLOXYSULFURON Label rates 12 Until dry
  (Monument)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  COMMENTS: A selective, translocated herbicide used to control annual sedges, yellow and purple nutsedge, green kyllinga, oxalis, and spurge. Also suppresses crabgrass and dallisgrass. Harmful to cool-season turfgrass species; used to remove tall fescue, annual and perennial rye, and annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis) from bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass. It can only be used on golf courses, sod farms, and other non-residential turf, such as cemeteries and commercial building sites.
 
EE. 2,4-D LOW-VOLATILE ESTERS* 0.48–0.95 lb a.i.    
  (Weedone LV4) 1–2 pt 12 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A selective herbicide used for annual and perennial broadleaf weed control. Applied in spring when weeds are rapidly growing. Additional treatments may be required for late emerging weeds or on perennials. Available as an amine or ester formulation. The 2,4-D ester form is used for hard-to-kill perennial broadleaf weeds. Do not use it on newly-seeded turf, St. Augustinegrass, bentgrasses or dichondra. 2,4-D is often mixed with several other broadleaf weed killers (MCPP, MCPA, dicamba, clopyralid, carfentrazone, MSMA, triclopyr, quinclorac, etc.) to increase the spectrum of susceptible weeds or provide safety to turfgrass species or sites, or both. Apply in 100 gal water/acre. Use to control common yarrow, speedwells, mallows, mature knotweed. For spot treatments, use 4 tsp formulation per 1 gal water.
 
FF. 2,4-D WATER-SOLUBLE AMINES* 1–1.5 lb a.i.    
  (Weedar 64) 2–3 pt 48 Until dry
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4
  COMMENTS: A selective herbicide used for annual and perennial broadleaf weed control. Applied in spring when weeds are rapidly growing. Additional treatments may be required for late emerging weeds or on perennials. Available as an amine or ester formulation. The amine formulation is generally more selective on turfgrass and is less subject to drift problems to nontarget species. For control of dandelion, plantain, and young pigweed, use 1 lb acid equivalent plus 1 qt surfactant in 100 gal water/acre. For spot treatment, use 2 tsp formulation plus 2 tsp surfactant to 1 gal water. For control of young knotweed (2- to 4-leaf stage), field bindweed, prickly lettuce, and filaree, use 1.9 lb acid equivalent plus 1 qt surfactant in 100 gal water/acre. For spot treatment, use 4 tsp formulation plus 2 tsp surfactant to 1 gal water. On bentgrasses use water-soluble amine only and do not exceed 0.75 lb acid equivalent/acre.
 
GG. 2,4-D*/MCPP/DICAMBA* Label rates 48 Until dry
  (Trimec, Triplet, etc.)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBERS1: 4/4/4
  COMMENTS: For broad-spectrum control of broadleaf weeds. Many formulations available for different turfgrass species. Use lower rates for bentgrass, hybrid bermudagrass and other sensitive turfgrasses. Nonselective on dichondra. Avoid applying to drought- and heat-stressed turf. Do not irrigate within 24 hrs of application. Newly seeded turf should not be treated until after the second or third mowing. Bentgrass is the most sensitive of the turfgrasses. Read label for further application directions. Do not allow spray drift to contact broadleaf ornamentals or injury may occur.
 
HH. 2,4-D*/MCPP/DICAMBA*/CARFENTRAZONE Label rates 48 Until dry
  (Speedzone, Speedzone Southern)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBERS1: 4/4/4/14
  COMMENTS: Fast acting broadleaf weed killer. Speedzone Southern specially formulated for warm-season turfgrass.
 
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) according to different modes of action. Although weeds may exhibit multiple resistance across many groups, mode-of-action numbers are useful in planning mixtures or rotations of herbicides with different modes of action.
Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Agricultural use applies to sod farms and commercial seed production.
Indicates use is not listed on label.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Turfgrass
UC ANR Publication 3365-T

Weeds

C. A. Wilen, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego County
M. LeStrange, UC Cooperative Extension, Tulare County
M. A. Harivandi, UC Cooperative Extension, Alameda County

Acknowledgment for contributions to Weeds:
C. L. Elmore, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis
D. W. Cudney, Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside
V. A. Gibeault, Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside

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