How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Tomatoes to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 12/13, updated 12/13)

In this Guideline:

Common name (example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) General predators3 Parasites3 Honey bees4 Duration of impact to natural enemies5
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) L M/H II moderate to affected insects
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) —6 III moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L IV short
beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H I moderate
bifenthrin (Capture) 3A broad (jnsects, mites) H H I–III9 long
buprofezin (Courier) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) H7 L IV long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H II long
carbaryl (Sevin bait) 1A narrow (cutworms, armyworms, grasshoppers, etc.) L L IV short
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L/M IV short
chlothianidin (Belay) 4A Lygus bugs, aphids L L IV short
diazinon–granular 1B narrow (soil insects, symphylans) L L IV short
dimethoate 1B broad (insects, mites) H H I long
dinotefuran (Venom) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) III
endosulfan (Thionex) 2A broad (insects, mites) M M II moderate
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) M H I moderate
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H I
flonicamid (Beleaf) 9C narrow (plant bugs, fleahopper, aphids) L L IV short
flubendiamide (Belt) 28 L L/M I short
imidacloprid, systemic (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L II
imidacloprid, foliar (various) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L I moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects) M M IV short to none
kaolin clay (Surround) broad (insects, mites) M IV
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H I moderate
malathion 1B broad (insects) H H II moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects) H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L IV none
novaluron (Rimon) 15 narrow (caterpillars) L I short
oxamyl (Vydate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H III moderate
permethrin (Pounce, Ambush) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H I long
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids) L L III short
pyriproxyfen (Knack) 7C narrow (aphids, whiteflies) H7 L IV short
rosemary + peppermint oils (Ecotrol) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L IV
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) M10 M/H III moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, thrips, aphids, leafminers, scales) M8 L/M III short
spiromesifen (Oberon) 23 narrow (psyllids, mites, whiteflies)
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, scale, psyllids, whiteflies) L L short
sulfur narrow (mites and thrips) M H IV short
thiamethoxam, foliar (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M/H M/H I moderate
thiamethoxam, systemic (Plantinum) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M I moderate
thyme oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L L IV
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Max) 3A broad (insects, mites) M M I moderate
H = high M = moderate    L = low    — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
4 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
5 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
6 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
7 Kills lady beetles.
8 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, expecially for syrphid fly larvae.
9 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Tomato
UC ANR Publication 3470

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, UC ANR Publication 3386.

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