How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Strawberries to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/08, updated 6/12)

In this Guideline:

Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites 3 General predators 4 Parasites 4 Honey bees 5 Duration of impact to natural enemies 6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) M L M/H I9 long to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) 7 IV
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 7 III moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (spider mites) L L L III short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I–III10 long
carbaryl (Sevin) bait 1A narrow (cutworms, army-worms, grasshoppers, etc.) L L L IV short
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I11 moderate
cinnamaldehyde (Cinnacure) narrow (mites) IV short
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
dicofol (Dicofol 4-E) un narrow (pest mites and mites) H M M IV long to beneficial mites
endosulfan (Thionex, Thiodan) 2A broad (insects, mites) L M M II12 moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H7 L IV short
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L IV short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) M L L IV short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworm, cutworms) L I13
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H II short to moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L IV short
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H II moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
methyl bromide 8A
naled (Dibrom) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I14
paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L15 L L III short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3 broad (insects) M M III short
pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide (Pyrenone) 3/— broad (insects) III short to moderate
pyriproxyfen (Esteem) 7C narrow (whiteflies, etc.) L H16 L IV long
rosemary oil (Hexacide) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L IV
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, fruit flies, leafminers) M M17 L/M III moderate18
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, fruit flies, leafminers) M M17 L/M III short to moderate17
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (mites, whiteflies)
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 19 M I moderate
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to Phytoseiulus persimilis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to two weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
8 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
9 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
10  If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
11 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
12 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
13 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
14 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
15 Rating depends on rate used.
16 Kills lady beetles.
17 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
18 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
19 May cause increase in spider mite populations.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Strawberry
UC ANR Publication 3468
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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