How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Strawberries to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/08, updated 6/14, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:

Common name (example trade name) Mode of action 1 Selectivity 2 (affected groups) Predatory mites 3 General predators 4 Parasites 4 Honey bees 5 Duration of impact to natural enemies 6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) M L M/H I long to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) 7 III
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 7 II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol) broad (insects) II
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (spider mites) L L L II short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin) bait 1A narrow (cutworms, armyworms, grasshoppers, etc.) L L L I short
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
cinnamaldehyde (Cinnacure) narrow (mites) III short
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
endosulfan (Thionex, Thiodan) 2A broad (insects, mites) L M M II moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H7 L II short
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L III short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) M L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworm, cutworms) L I
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H I short to moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
methyl bromide 8A
naled (Dibrom) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I
paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L II short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L II short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide (Pyrenone) 3A/— broad (insects) I short to moderate
pyriproxyfen (Esteem) 7C narrow (whiteflies, etc.) L H10 L II long
rosemary oil (Hexacide) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, fruit flies, leafminers) M M11 L/M II moderate12
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, fruit flies, leafminers) M M11 L/M II short to moderate11
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (mites, whiteflies) II
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 13 M I moderate
H = high      M = moderate       L = low       — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their website at
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to Phytoseiulus persimilis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III–No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Rating.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to two weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
8 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
13 May cause increase in spider mite populations.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Strawberry
UC ANR Publication 3468

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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