How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Caneberries to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 12/09, updated 3/10, pesticides updated 6/15)

In this Guideline:

Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
azadirachtin (AZA-Direct, Neemix, Azatin) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (mites) L L L III short
bifenthrin (Brigade, Capture) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I-III7 long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
carbaryl (Sevin F) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H I8 long
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR Plus 1A broad (insects, mites) L H L I9 long
cinnamaldehyde (Cinnacure) narrow (mites) IV short
cottonseed/clove/garlic oils (GC-Mite) narrow (mites) IV short
diazinon-foliar (Diazinon 50 W) 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) L L L IV short to moderate
horticultural oil (Organic JMS stylet
broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects, mites) M M M IV short
malathion (Malathion 8) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H II moderate
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L III short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M III short
spinetoram (Delegate WG) 5 narrow (caterpillars,
L M10 L/M III moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars) L M10 L/M III short to moderate10
sulfur narrow (mites) L/H L H IV short
tebufenozide (Confirm 2F) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3A broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high     M = moderate     L = low
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers (“un”= unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
8 If rate is 1 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is II.
9 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly larva, beetles) when sprayed and shortly after (8-24 hrs).
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Caneberries
UC ANR Publication 3437

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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