How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pomegranate to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 10/13, updated 10/13, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:

Common name
(trade name and example formulation)
Mode of action1 Selectivity 2 (affected groups) Predatory mites 3 General predators 4 Parasites 4 Honey bees 5 Duration of impact to natural enemies 6
azadirachtin (Aza-Direct) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
buprofezin (Applaud) 16 narrow (sucking insects) L H 8 L II long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (caterpillars) III
clothianidin (Belay) 4A M/H M/H I long
hydramethylnon (Amdro Pro bait) 20A
imidacloprid: systemic (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 H I short to moderate
imidacloprid: foliar (Pasada) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 H I short to moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II none
mineral oil un broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L II short to none
neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L II short
pyrethrin (Evergreen, PyGanic) 3A broad (insects) M M I short
rosemary + peppermint oil (Ecotrol) un broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L III short
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 broad (caterpillars, aphids, scales) L/M M M/H II moderate10
spinosad (Entrust) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales) L M L/M II short
sulfur un narrow (mites, thrips) L/H M/L H III short
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Kills lady beetles.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pomegranate
UC ANR Publication 3474

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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