How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Pecan

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pecans to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 12/15, updated 12/15, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of Action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact
to natural enemies6
azadirachtin un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects) M H H I moderate
dimethoate 1B broad (insects) H H H I long
imidacloprid (various) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L I
potassium salts of fatty acids (DES-X, M-Pede) un broad (insects) III
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids) L L L II short
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids) L L L II short
H = high       M = moderate         L = low        — = no information        un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers ("un" = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their website at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pecan
UC ANR Publication 3456

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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