How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides to Natural Enemies and Pollinators

(Reviewed 12/09, updated 5/10, pesticides updated 6/16, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:

Common name
(Trade name and formulation)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek EC) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) M L M/H I moderate to predatory mites & affected insects
acetamiprid (Assail WP) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin 4F) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) L H L I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) III
chlorantraniliprole/lambda-cyhalothrin (Voliam Xpress) 28/3A
chlorantraniliprole/thiamethoxam (Voliam Flexi) 28/4A
cryolite (Kryocide) un narrow (foliage chewing insects) L L L III short
cyantraniliprole (Exirel, Verimark) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars)
cyromazine (Trigard WP) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L II short
dinotefuran (Venom) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I short
dimethoate (E) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
flonicamid (Beleaf) 9C narrow (thrips, aphids) L L L III short
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I longI
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L I moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) M M M III short
methomyl (Lannate SP, LV) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
permethrin (Ambush W, Pounce WP) 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L II short
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L II short
pyrethrin (PyGanic EC) 3 broad (insects) M M I short
pyriproxyfen (Knack) 7C narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L H10 L II short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) M M11 L/M II moderate12
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) M M11 L/M II moderate11
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (psyllid, mite, whitefly) II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphid, psyllid, whitefly) II
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 M I moderate
H = high    M = moderate     L = low   — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II–Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III–No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Rating.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause increase in spider mite numbers.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for Dipteran predators such as syrphid flies).
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Peppers
UC ANR Publication 3460

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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