How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Pear

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pears to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 11/12, updated 11/12, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name and formulation) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek EC) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers, psylla) H L M/H I long to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) III
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (caterpillars, sucking insects) 7 8 M/H II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III none
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (mites) L L L II short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects) L H9 L II long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (caterpillars) III
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban EC) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) L L L III short
clothianidin (Clutch) 4A M/H M/H I long
Cydia pomenella granulovirus (Cyd-X) un narrow (codling moth) none none none III none
diazinon (WP) 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 narrow (codling moth, katydids) L H L II short
dimethoate 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) 8 II short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites and some insects) H L L III short
formetanate hydrochloride (Carzol) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H II long, unless washed off
hexythiazox (Savey, Onager) 10A narrow (mites) L L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 H I short to moderate
kaolin clay (Surround) un broad (insects, mites) M M III long
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
lime sulfur un narrow (mites, thrips) L/H L H II short
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II none
micronized sulfur un narrow (mites, thrips) L/H L/M H III short
neem oil (Trilogy) un broad (soft-bodied) insects) L L L II short
petroleum oil un broad (exposed insects, mites) L10 L L II short to none
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21A broad (insects, mites) M/H M I short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem, Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H9 L II long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 broad (caterpillars, thrips, aphids, scales) L/M M M/H II moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, aphids, scales) L M L/M II short
spinosad (GF-120) 5 narrow (flies) L II short
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, scale) L L L II short
thiacloprid (Calypso) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 M/H M/H II moderate
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 7 M/H M/H I moderate
 
H = high     M = moderate    L = low    — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at www.irac-online.org.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low, but reproductive capacity impacted.
9 Kills lady beetles.
10 Rating depends on rate used.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pear
UC ANR Publication 3455

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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