How to Manage Pests
UC Pest Management Guidelines
The grape and obscure mealybugs closely resemble each other. Both mealybugs are most damaging in old trees with rough bark that shelter overwintering egg masses and crawlers. Eggs are yellowish to orange and are laid in a cottony mass. The young crawlers are orange. Mature mealybugs are about 0.2 inch (5mm) long with dark purple-gray, somewhat flattened bodies that are uniformly covered with a white powdery wax. Long caudal filaments along the lateral margin of the body become progressively shorter toward the head.
Mealybugs occasionally feed in the calyx end of maturing fruit, which may become soft as the pear ripens. Because mealybugs cannot be removed with present washing methods, infested lots of fruit are rejected by both cannery and fresh-market handlers. Honeydew is also produced, which may cause russeting on pears and fosters the growth of black sooty fungus on the surface, rendering the fruit unfit for fresh shipment.
Mealybugs are minor pests in pear orchards and only occasionally become pests when their predators and parasites are unable to keep them below economically damaging levels. Mealybugs are most damaging in old trees with rough bark that shelter overwintering nymphs and egg clusters.
At least five species of parasitic wasps attack grape mealybugs in California. Little research on these parasites has been conducted, but it is assumed they play a prominent role in regulating populations. The impact of the different species varies from time to time and place to place. Grape mealybugs that are parasitized by two tiny wasps, Acerophagus notativentris and Pseudophycus angelicus, have multiple emergence holes that are easily seen with a hand lens. Ants must be controlled to keep them from interfering with these natural enemies. Two parasitic wasps, Pseudophycus flavidulus and Leptomastix epona, have been imported and released against obscure mealybugs. To ensure survival of parasites, do not use disruptive insecticides during the growing season.
The most effective mealybug predator is a lady beetle called the mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, which can be found in coastal regions. Cecidomyiid flies prey on mealybug eggs and small larvae. These predators plus green lacewings, minute pirate bugs, and spiders are important in keeping mealybug populations in check.
Biological control and oil sprays are organically acceptable methods.
Mealybugs can be detected during the dormant season by checking under bark and in protected places for overwintering eggs or crawlers. (See DORMANT TO DELAYED-DORMANT SAMPLING for information about monitoring other pests at this time.)
The finger bud to cluster stage is the best time to sample populations to estimate control needs. Collect one fruit spur from the top and one from eye level of 50 trees (100 total) in a block and count the number infested with mealybug nymphs (see SAMPLING AT BLOOM). Continue looking for mealybugs in the fruit calyx through harvest during the weekly fruit sample. (See SAMPLING DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT and HARVEST FRUIT SAMPLE for more information.)
Dormant and delayed-dormant oil applications for other pests reduce mealybug populations but are not adequate to control heavy populations. The best time to treat is from cluster bud to bloom when crawlers of the first generation become active. Because of prolonged emergence during June, crawlers of the second generation are more difficult to control. During the cluster bud to bloom period, treat when four or more infested spurs are found.
|Common name||Amount to use**||R.E.I.+||P.H.I.+|
|The following materials are listed in order of usefulness in an IPM program, taking into account efficacy and impact on natural enemies and honey bees. When choosing a pesticide, also consider information relating to environmental impact. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read the label of the product being used.|
|FINGER BUD AND SUMMER|
|(Movento)||6–9 fl oz||—||24||7|
|MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 23|
|COMMENTS: Allow 1 to 2 weeks for systemic movement through the plant. Must be applied with an adjuvant to improve penetration. Do not apply until after petal fall. For resistance management, do not apply more than once a year. Do not apply to blooming plants, including fruit trees and broadleaf weeds.|
|(Centaur WDG)||34.5–46.0 oz||—||12||14|
|MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 16|
|COMMENTS: Insect growth regulator. Apply to the crawler stage.|
|(Actara)||4.5–5.5 oz||1.125–1.375 oz||12||see comments|
|MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A|
|COMMENTS: Allow a minimum of 10 days between applications; do not exceed 8 oz/acre per season. Preharvest interval is 14 days when 2.75 oz/acre or less is used and 35 days when more than 2.75 oz/acre is used. Do not apply to blooming plants, including fruit trees and broadleaf weeds.|
|(Clutch 50WDG)||2–6 oz||—||12||7|
|MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A|
|COMMENTS: Do not apply to blooming plants, including fruit trees and broadleaf weeds.|
|E.||DIAZINON* 50WP||4 lb||1 lb||96 (4 days)||21|
|MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B|
|COMMENTS: Apply when crawlers become active. Addition of 0.5–1 gal oil/100 gal dilute improves control. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters. Do not apply to blooming plants, including fruit trees and broadleaf weeds.|
|**||Dilute rate is the rate per 100 gal water; use 400 gal solution/acre. Apply concentrate in 80–100 gal water/acre, or less if the label allows.|
|+||Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.|
|*||Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.|
|1||Rotate chemicals with a different mode of action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode of action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at www.irac-online.org.|
UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines:
UC ANR Publication 3455
L. G. Varela, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma County
R. B. Elkins, UC Cooperative Extension, Lake County
R. A. Van Steenwyk, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley
C. Ingels, UC Cooperative Extension, Sacramento County
Acknowledgment for contributions to Insects and Mites:
C. Pickel, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, Sutter/Yuba counties
P. W. Weddle, Weddle, Hansen & Associates
R. Hansen, Weddle, Hansen & Associates
P. Chevalier, United Ag Products, Ukiah
M. Hooper, Ag Unlimited, Lakeport
B. Knispel, Pest Control Adviser, Upper Lake
T. Lidyoff, Purity Products, Healdsburg
G. McCosker, Harvey Lyman Agservices, Walnut Grove
B. Oldham, Ag Unlimited, Ukiah
J. Sisevich, AgroTech, Kelseyville (retired)
D. Smith, Western Farm Service, Walnut Grove
B. Zoller, The Pear Doctor, Inc., Kelseyville