How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Apple

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Apples to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 8/06, updated 1/11, pesticides updated 10/15, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:


Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H I moderate to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) L III
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) L7 8 II moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) L/M L/M II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (spider mites) L L L II short
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects) L H8 L II long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) M L L III short
clothianidin (Belay) 4A M/H M/H I
Cydia pomenella granulovirus (Cyd-X) narrow (codling moth) none none none III none
diazinon 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate to long
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H8 L II short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites and some insects) H L L III short
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) M L L II short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H I short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L I moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects, mites) M M M III short
kaolin clay (Surround) broad (insects, mites) M M III long
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied) insects) L L L II short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L9 L L III short
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21A broad (insect, mites) M/H M I short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem, Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H10 L III long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/M M11 L/M II moderate12
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M11 L/M II short to moderate11
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids) L L L II short
sulfur narrow (mites) L/H M/L H III short
 
H = high     M = moderate    L = low    — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
 
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Apple
UC ANR Publication 3432

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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