How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Almond

General Properties of Fungicides Used in Almonds

(Reviewed 8/17, updated 8/17)

In this Guideline:


Common name
(Example trade name)
Chemical class1 Activity Mode of action (FRAC1 No.) Resistance potential Comments
azoxystrobin (Abound) Qol2 contact, systemic single-site (11) high some populations of Fusicladium sp. (scab) and Alternaria sp. have been found to be resistant to Qol fungicides
azoxystrobin/difenoconazole (Quadris Top) QoI2/DMI3 contact,
systemic (local)
single-site / single-site (3/11) medium  
azoxystrobin/propiconazole (Quilt Xcel) QoI2/DMI3 contact,
systemic (local)
single-site / single-site (3/11) medium  
boscalid/pyraclostrobin (Pristine) SDHI4 pyridine-carboxamide/Qol2 contact, systemic single-site / single-site (7/11) high some populations of Fusicladium sp. (scab) and Alternaria sp. have been found resistant to QoI2 and SDHI4 fungicides
captan phthalamide contact multi-site (M4) low highly toxic to honey bee larvae
chlorothalonil (Bravo/Echo) aromatic nitrile contact multi-site (M5) low  
copper inorganic contact multi-site (M1) low  
cyprodinil (Vangard) anilinopyrimidine mostly contact single-site (9) high more effective in spring than summer
difenoconazole (Inspire) DMI3 systemic single-site (3) high  
difenoconazole/cyprodinil (Inspire Super) DMI3/anilinopyrimidine contact, systemic single-site / single-site (3/9) medium  
fenbuconazole (Indar) DMI3 systemic (local) single-site (3) high  
fenhexamide (Elevate) hydroxyanilide contact single-site (17) high  
fluopyram/tebuconazole (Luna Experience) SDHI4 pyridinyl-ethyl-benzamide/DMI3 contact, systemic single-site / single-site (7/3) high some populations have been found resistant to SDHI4 fungicides
fluopyram/trifloxystrobin (Luna Sensation) SDHI4 pyridinyl-ethyl-benzamide/QoI2 contact, systemic single-site / single-site (7/11) low some populations have been found resistant to QoI2 and SDHI4 fungicides
fluxapyroxad/pyraclostrobin (Merivon) SDHI4 pyrazole-4-carboxamide contact, systemic multi-site (7/11) medium some populations have been found resistant to QoI2 and SDHI4 fungicides
fosetyl-Al (Aliette) phosphorothiolate systemic unknown (33)  
iprodione (Rovral, Nevado) dicarboximide systemic (local) single-site? (2) low  
mancozeb* (Dithane, Manzate) carbamate (EBDC) 5 contact multi-site (M3) low  
metconazole (Quash) DMI3 systemic (local) single-site (3) high  
mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) acylalanine contact, systemic single-site (4) high  
myclobutanil (Laredo, Rally) DMI3-triazole systemic (local) single-site (3) high  
penthiopyrad (Fontelis) SDHI4 pyrazole-4-carboxamide contact, systemic single-site (7) high use in mixtures when possible
phosphites (Prophyt, Fosphite) phosphonates systemic multi-site? (33) low  
polyoxin-D (Ph-D/Oso/Tavano) polyoxin contact single-site (19) medium  
propiconazole (Tilt/Bumper/Propicure/
Propiconazole)
DMI3-triazole systemic (local) single-site (3) high  
pyrimethanil (Scala) anilinopyrimidine mostly contact single-site (9) high more effective in spring than summer
sulfur inorganic contact multi-site (M2) low highly toxic to native strains of western predatory mite (Galendromus occidentalis) and to parasites
thiophanate-methyl (Topsin-M/T-Methyl/Incognito) MBC6 systemic (local) single-site (1) very high resistant populations do not decline in absence of thiophanate-methyl use.
trifloxystrobin (Gem) Qol2 contact, systemic single-site (11) high  
tebuconazole (Tebuzol/Tebucon/Toledo) DMI-triazole systemic (local) single-site (3) high  
tebuconazole / phosphite (Viathon) DMI-triazole / phosphonate systemic multi-site (3/33) medium  
ziram carbamate (DMDC)7 contact multi-site (M3) low  
 
BIOLOGICALS9
Streptomyces lydicus (Actinovate AG#) 8 contact low  
Aureobasidium pullulans (Botector#) 8 contact low  
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D747 (Double Nickel 55#) 8 contact low  
Trichoderma harzianum
(PlantShield#)
8 contact low  
Bacillus subtilis (Serenade#) 8 contact low  
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of actions. Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of fungicides with mode-of-action group numbers 1, 4, 9, 11, or 17 before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number; for fungicides with other group numbers, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to fungicide with a different mode-of-action group number.
2 QoI = quinone outside inhibitor or strobilurin
3 DMI = demethylation (sterol) inhibitor
4 SDHI = succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor
5 EBDC = ethylene bisdithiocarbamate
6 MBC = methyl benzimidazole
7 DMDC = dimethyl dithiocarbamate
8 Antibiosis antagonism, mycoparasitism, and/or site exclusion have been proposed as mode of action.
9 For some biologicals growth is required for inhibition of pathogen by antagonism or mycoparasitism.
? Mode of action uncertain
= no information
# Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Almond
UC ANR Publication 3431

General Information

Acknowledgment: Adaskaveg et al., 2017. Efficacy and Timing of Fungicides, Bactericides, and Biologicals for Deciduous Tree Fruit, Nut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops (PDF)

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