How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Pesticides used in Almonds to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 3/09, updated 7/14)

In this Guideline:

Common name
(example trade name)
Mode of Action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory Mites3 General Predators4 Parasites4 Honey Bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H II long to predatory mites and affected insects
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) L IV
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (mites) L L L IV short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I–III7 long
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) L H8 L IV long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) L/H H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
chloropyridazin/sulfur (Desperado) H
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban)-dormant 1B broad (insects, mites) L L/M L I9 moderate
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban)-in season 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I9 moderate
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) L L L IV short
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
diazinon 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 L H10 L IV
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) III
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insects, mites) H M H I moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10C narrow (mites) 11 IV short
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L IV short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites and some insects) H L L IV short
flubendiamide (Belt) 28 L L L/M I short
flubendiamide + buprofezin (Tourismo) 28 + 16 narrow L H12 L I long
hexythiazox (Onager) 10B narrow (mites) L L L IV short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I13 moderate
methidathion (Supracide) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
permethrin (Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
petroleum oils broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short to none
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
propargite (Omite) 14 narrow (pest mites) M14 L L IV short
pyriproxyfen (Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H12 L IV long
rosemary oil + peppermint oil (Ecotrol) broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L IV
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales) L/H M15 L/M III moderate16
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales) L/H M15 L/M III short to moderate
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) I
sulfur narrow (mites and thrips) L/H M/L H IV short
H = high    M = moderate    L = low    — = no information    un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers (“un” =unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Toxicity ratings focus on acute toxicity to adult foraging bees. Additional risks to bee brood (developing bees) in the hive may occur and are not reflected in these ratings. Ratings are as follows: I–Do not apply to blooming plants; II–Apply only during late evening; III–Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV–Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension publication PNW591 2013.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
8 Use lowest rates for best management of western predatory mite/spider mite ratio (propargite).
9 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
10 High toxicity to juvenile stages of predators and reduces fertility of adult green lacewings.
11 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
12 Kills lady beetles.
13 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
14 Use lowest rates for best management of western predatory mite/spider mite ratio (propargite).
15 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly larvae) when sprayed and shortly thereafter (8-24 hours).
16 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Almond
UC ANR Publication 3431

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, UC ANR Publication 3386.

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