Eggplant

Agricultural pest management


Little mallow, Malva parviflora, seedling.

Herbicide Treatment Table

(Reviewed 4/10, updated 4/10, pesticides updated 5/16)

In this Guideline: More about weeds in peach:

Herbicide Amount per acre REI‡ PHI‡
(Example trade name)   (hours) (days)

UPDATED: 5/16
Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
Bee precaution pesticide ratings
The following are listed alphabetically. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to environmental impact, resistance management, the pesticide's properties, and application timing. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read the label of the product being used.
 
PREPLANT FUMIGATION
 
A. METAM SODIUM*
(Vapam, Sectagon) Label rates See label NA
COMMENTS: For use in sprinkler or furrow-irrigated eggplants. Apply with enough water to penetrate 18 to 24 inches and treat at least 50% of planting bed width. Blade injection of metam sodium into preformed beds for weed control gives erratic nematode control; apply with irrigation water for best control of nematodes. Follow recommended waiting period on label before setting transplants out.
 
PREFORMED BEDS
 
A. CARFENTRAZONE 0.0296 lb a.i.
(Shark EW) 2 fl oz 12 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
COMMENTS: A nonselective, burndown application that can be used before transplanting eggplants when weeds are less than 4 inches tall or in rosettes less than 3 inches across.
 
B. GLYPHOSATE 0.38-0.76 lb a.e.
(Roundup PowerMax) 0.68–1.36 pt 4 14
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9
COMMENTS: A nonselective foliar herbicide that can be used up to 3 days before direct seeding takes place. The rate depends upon the weed species present and to some extent on weed size; control is poor when weeds exceed the maximum size indicated on the label. Cheeseweed and burning nettle require the higher rate, as do perennials. Annual weeds are best controlled when small. Apply in 3 to 20 gal water. Glyphosate provides good annual weed control and some suppression of perennial weeds. Control of perennials improves with late summer or fall applications during noncrop periods when perennials are actively growing.
 
C. OXYFLOURFEN 0.25–0.5 lb a.i.
(Goaltender) 0.5–1 pt 24 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1:
COMMENTS: Provides both preemergence and postemergence control of broadleaf annuals. Rate depends on the size of weeds. Work the beds with a rolling cultivator or similar tool to a depth of 2.5 inches before planting to avoid crop injury, which can result if beds are not thoroughly worked before planting or if seedling peppers are stressed. Once the beds have been worked, the effectiveness of the material is greatly diminished and will no longer provide weed control. Can be applied 120 days or more before direct seeding. Transplanting of eggplant is not allowed. Work the beds similar to direct-seeded peppers. This herbicide lasts 4–8 weeks in the soil and has a 10-month plantback restriction for nonlabeled crops.
 
D. PARAQUAT* 0.49–1 lb. a.i.
(Gramoxone SL 2.0) 2–4 pt See label 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 22
COMMENTS: A nonselective foliar herbicide that controls only emerged plants and has no residual activity. Applied as a band treatment over the crop row or as a broadcast treatment before seeding or transplanting the eggplants or after seeding but before eggplants emerge. Any eggplants that have emerged at the time of application will be killed along with the weeds. Controls annual weeds and provides some suppression of perennials. Poor control of cheeseweed. Apply when weeds are succulent and from 1 to 6 inches high; larger weeds are more difficult to control. Apply in 20 to 60 gal water/acre (10 gal by air) with a nonionic surfactant added at the rate of 8 to 32 oz/100 gal. Use the high surfactant rate with cereals and heavy weed infestations. Late afternoon applications increase activity. Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift.
 
E. PELARGONIC ACID
(Scythe) 3–5% v/v in 75 to 200 gal water/acre 12 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
COMMENTS: A nonselective, burndown application that can be used before seeding or transplanting eggplants. The smaller the weeds, the more effective the control.
 
PREPLANT
 
A. BENSULIDE 5–6 lb a.i.
(Prefar 4-EC) 5–6 qt 12 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 8
COMMENTS: A preplant incorporated herbicide that controls annual grasses, but not wild oats or volunteer cereals, and certain broadleaf weeds such as purslane and pigweed. Apply in 10 to 50 gal water/acre and incorporate to a depth of 1 to 3 inches; bensulide can also be applied by chemigation or by surface application followed by sprinkler irrigation for incorporation. This material has a long residual (6 months or more in some soils) and 120-day plantback restriction for nonlabeled crops.
 
B. NAPROPAMIDE 1–2 lb a.i.
(Devrinol 50DF) 2–4 lb 24 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 15
COMMENTS: A preplant incorporated herbicide; the rate of application of this material depends on soil type. Incorporate to a depth of 1 to 3 inches soon after application to prevent loss. Band applications are frequently used to reduce cost. Controls most annual grasses and broadleaves, but not nightshades, mustards, horseweed, or flaxleaf fleabane. It has a long residual and can cause problems on crops such as lettuce, sugarbeet, and cereals planted in rotation.
 
POSTPLANT
 
A. CARFENTRAZONE 0.0296 lb a.i.
(Shark EW) 2 fl oz 12 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
COMMENTS: May be applied to the row middles using a hooded sprayer. Take care to keep the spray material off the crop.
 
B. CLETHODIM 0.09093–0.12 lb a.i.
(Select Max) 12–16 fl oz 24 20
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
COMMENTS: A systemic herbicide that controls annual and perennial grasses. For ground applications, apply in 10 to 40 gal of spray solution/acre; add a crop oil concentrate at the rate of 1% v/v in the finished spray volume. Grasses must be at the proper size (see label), well watered, and actively growing for good control. Make repeat applications at a minimum interval of 14 days. Do not apply more than 64 fl oz per season.
 
C. HALOSULFURON 0.37–0.75 oz a.i.
(Sandea) 0.5–1 oz 12 30
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
COMMENTS: For use on seed and transplant eggplants for the control of nutsedge. Apply as a directed spray or with shields to avoid contact with the crop. Injury may result if the spray contacts the foliage. Use of 0.25 to 0.5% v/v of nonionic surfactant is recommended. Use of crop oil concentrate or silicone surfactants is not recommended due to increased risk of injury. Do not apply halosulfuron if a soil application of an organophosphate insecticide has been made. Do not apply a foliar organophosphate insecticide within 21 days before or 7 days after any halosulfuron treatment. Not for use in Imperial and Riverside counties.
 
D. NAPROPAMIDE 1–2 lb a.i.
(Devrinol 50DF) 2–4 lb 24 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 15
COMMENTS: Apply the recommended amount of napropamide to the soil surface immediately after transplanting. It may be applied over the top of the plants. Use 20 to 50 gal spray/acre and make sure that the material reaches the zone of weed seed germination. Use overhead sprinkler irrigation to wet the soil to a depth of 2 to 4 inches.
 
E. PELARGONIC ACID
(Scythe) 3–5% v/v in 75 to 200 gal water/acre 12 0
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
COMMENTS: May be applied to the row middles using a hooded sprayer. Take care to keep the spray material off the crop.
 
F. SETHOXYDIM 0.28 lb a.i.
(Poast) 1.5 pt 12 20
WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
COMMENTS: A systemic herbicide that controls most annual and perennial grasses. Apply in 10 to 20 gal water; add a crop oil concentrate at the rate of 1 qt/acre. Grasses must be at the proper size, well watered, and actively growing for good control. This treatment can be repeated up to three times per season with a preharvest interval of 20 days. Read label for restrictions regarding tank mixes.
 
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) according to different modes of action. Although weeds may exhibit multiple resistance across many groups, mode-of-action numbers are useful in planning mixtures or rotations of herbicides with different modes of action.
NA Not applicable.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Eggplant
UC ANR Publication 3475

Weeds

K.J. Hembree, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County

Acknowledgments for contributions to Weeds:
R. H. Molinar, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County

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