How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Alfalfa

Site Selection to Avoid Pest Problems

(Reviewed 3/17, updated 3/17)

In this Guideline:


An important IPM strategy is to choose fields that are well suited to alfalfa production. A field's cropping history is important; alfalfa planted in fields with poor drainage, poor nutrient balance, or infested with alfalfa pests, especially weeds, will suffer yield loss and greater pest problems.

Identify the crops and vegetation surrounding your alfalfa fields and determine pest history for those fields. For example, check to see if they harbor pathogens (such as Sclerotinia) or have a history of nematodes. Carefully planned cultural practices, including early fall planting dates, can help manage pests, including insects, weeds, and diseases.

key issues for site selection

Drainage

Proper drainage is critical for the development of a healthy root system. If drainage is poor, consider physical modification such as deep tillage, raised beds, or installation of drainage tiles.

Soil type

Alfalfa grows successfully on a wide range of soil textures, but sandy loam to clay-loam soils are preferred.

Soil depth

A site should provide a minimum of 3 feet of unrestricted rooting depth.

Water holding capacity

High water-holding capacity is desired, but with good drainage.

Soil pH, soil fertility

Near neutral pH is highly preferred. Low pH soils cause problems with nodulation with Rhizobium bacteria and nitrogen fixation, while high pH soils may have limitations for nutrient availability and salinity or sodicity issues.

A pH of 6.4 to 7.5 is recommended.

Toxic elements

Check for excess boron, selenium, or sodium.

Water supply, water quality, and irrigation system

Sufficient supplies of adequate quality water are required for successful production. Established alfalfa is tolerant of moderately saline water and high nitrate wastewater. Choose an appropriate irrigation system for site (sprinkler, flood or drip)

Topography

Highly variable fields with high and low spots may require land leveling, depending upon irrigation system.

Salinity

Alfalfa is somewhat tolerant of saline soils and water, but salinity can reduce stand establishment and growth, and encourage weed intrusion. Alfalfa can tolerate salinity levels up to 5 dS/L, but care should be taken to manage saline soils and water, especially during stand establishment. On very saline soils, mitigate salinity over time by growing other crops (e.g. barley) and leaching salts.

Cropping history

Do not plant alfalfa after alfalfa; rotate to another crop for at least 1 to 2 years between alfalfa plantings. This is important to manage residual disease, weed, nematode, and rodent problems. Rotate with non-legume crops (i.e., corn, cereals, cotton, tomato).

Weed history

If high numbers of difficult-to-control weeds are present, avoid the field and develop a strategy for control before planting.

Disease history

If diseases are known for a region, be sure to select appropriate disease-resistant varieties.

Nematode history

If field has a history of nematodes that attack alfalfa, select varieties rated as highly resistant, consider crop rotations, or avoid using the field for alfalfa.

Insect history

If weevils, aphids, cutworms, or armyworms are known for and area, develop an IPM strategy for control.

For more information on site selection, see Irrigated Alfalfa Management for Mediterranean and Desert Zones, (PDF) UC ANR Publication 3512.

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Alfalfa
UC ANR Publication 3430

General Information

W. M. Canevari, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
C. A. Frate, UC Cooperative Extension, Tulare County
P. B. Goodell, Entomology, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
D. H. Putnam, Plant Sciences, UC Davis
C. G. Summers, Entomology, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
R. N. Vargas, UC Cooperative Extension, Madera County

Top of page


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2017 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   Contact webmaster.