How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Cole Crops

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Cole Crops to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/07, updated 10/10)

In this Guideline:

Common name (trade name and formulation) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
acephate (Orthene S) 1B broad (insects) H H M/H I moderate
acetamiprid (Assail WP) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 III moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
bifenthrin (Brigade EC) 3 broad (insects) H H H I-III9 long
carbaryl (Sevin bait) 1A narrow (cutworms, armyworms) L L L IV short
carbaryl (Sevin F, S) 1A broad (insects) M/H H H I10 long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects) L H L I11 long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) IV
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban Advanced) 1B broad (insects) M H H I12 moderate
cryolite (Kryocide W) 9A narrow (foliage chewing insects) L L L IV short
cyromazine (Trigard WP) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III short
diazinon (EC, WP) 1B broad (insects) L H H I moderate to long
diazinon (granular) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L IV short
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) III
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3 broad (insects) H M H I13 moderate
ethoprop (Mocap G) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L IV
ethoprop (Mocap EC) 1B
flonicamid (Beleaf) 9C narrow (plant bugs, aphids) L L L IV short
flubendiamide (Belt) 28 L L L/M I short
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworm, cutworms) L I14
imidacloprid (Provado F) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 4A narrow (caterpillars) I
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects) M M M IV short to none
methomyl (Lannate SP, LV) 1A broad (insects) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid F) 18A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects) L L L III short to none
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) III
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L/H M16 L/M III moderate17
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M16 L/M III short to moderate16
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (whiteflies)
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, whiteflies)
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 18 M I moderate
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1  Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I = Do not apply to blooming plants; II = Apply only during late evening; III = Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV = Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
10  If rate is 1 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is II.
11 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
12 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
13 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
14 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
15 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
16 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
17 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
18 May cause increase in spider mite populations.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Cole Crops
UC ANR Publication 3442

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

Top of page

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2016 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   /PMG/r108900111.html revised: June 21, 2016. Contact webmaster.