How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Cole Crops

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Cole Crops to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/07, updated 10/10, corrected 10/16)

In this Guideline:

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (Affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
acephate (Orthene S) 1B broad (insects) H H M/H I moderate
acetamiprid (Assail WP) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 II moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
bifenthrin (Brigade EC) 3A broad (insects) H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin bait) 1A narrow (cutworms, armyworms) L L L III short
carbaryl (Sevin F, S) 1A broad (insects) M/H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects) L H L I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) III
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban Advanced) 1B broad (insects) M H H I moderate
cryolite (Kryocide W) un narrow (foliage chewing insects) L L L III short
cyromazine (Trigard WP) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L II short
diazinon (EC, WP) 1B broad (insects) L H H I moderate to long
diazinon (granular) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L III short
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) I
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insects) H M H I moderate
ethoprop (Mocap G) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L II
ethoprop (Mocap EC) 1B II
flonicamid (Beleaf) 9C narrow (plant bugs, aphids) L L L III short
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworm, cutworms) L I
imidacloprid (Provado F) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H I short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) I
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) un broad (insects) M M M III short to none
methomyl (Lannate SP, LV) 1A broad (insects) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid F) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L II short
petroleum oil un broad (exposed insects) L L L II short to none
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) II
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies,

aphids, leafminers)

L/H M9 L/M II moderate10
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M9 L/M II short to moderate9
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (whiteflies) II
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, whiteflies) II
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 11 M I moderate
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
10 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
11 May cause increase in spider mite populations.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Cole Crops
UC ANR Publication 3442

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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