How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Mandatory Intervals Between Application, Reentry, and Harvest, and Hazards to Bees

(Reviewed 2/17, updated 1/19)

In this Guideline:

Common name Example trade name and formulation Restricted entry interval1 (hours) Preharvest interval1 (days) Mode-of-action group number2 Hazards to bees3
abamectin Agri-Mek SC 12 7 6 I
abamectin Clinch Ant Bait 12 0 6
acequinocyl Kanemite 15SC 12 7 20B III
acetamiprid Assail 70WP, 30SG 12 7 4A II
azadirachtin Neemix 4.5 4 0 un II
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai# various 4 0 11A II
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki# various 4 0 11A III
beta-cyfluthrin Baythroid XL 12 0 3A I
bifenazate Acramite 50WS 12 1 year un II
bifenthrin Brigade WSB 12 1 3A I
buprofezin Centaur WDG 12 3 16 II
carbaryl* Sevin XLR Plus 12 hours or 3 days 5 1A I
chlorantraniliprole Altacor 4 1 28 III
chlorpyrifos* Lorsban Advanced 5 days 21, 28, or 354 1B I
Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 Grandevo 4 0 II
cryolite Kryocide, Prokil Cryolite 96 12 15 8C III
cyantraniliprole (soil) Verimark 4 1 28
cyantraniliprole (foliar) Exirel 12 1 28
cyantraniliprole/abamectin Minecto Pro 12 7 28/6
cyflumetofen Nealta 12 7 25
cyfluthrin Tombstone 12 0 3A I
diflubenzuron Micromite 80WGS, 2L 12 7 15 II
dimethoate Dimethoate 400, 4E, and 2.67 14 days 15 or 45 1B I
fenbutatin oxide Vendex 50WP 48 7 12B III
fenpropathrin Danitol 2.4EC 24 1 3A I
fenpyroximate Fujimite SC 12 3 21A III
flupyradifurone (foliar) Sivanto 200SL 12 1 4D II
formetanate hydrochloride Carzol SP 9 days5 30 1A II
hexythiazox Onager 12 7 10A II
imidacloprid (soil) Admire Pro 12 0 4A I
imidacloprid (foliar) Admire Pro 12 0 4A I
imidacloprid (foliar)/beta-cyfluthrin Leverage 360 12 0 4A/3A
iron phosphate Sluggo 0 0
malathion Malathion 8 Flowable 72 7 1B I
metaflumizone Altrevin Fire Ant Bait 12 5 22B III
metaldehyde various 12 0 III
methomyl* Lannate LV, SP 3 days 1 1A I
methoxyfenozide Intrepid 2F 4 1 18 II
micronized sulfur various 24 0 III
naled Dibrom 8 Emulsive 48 7 1B I
neem oil Trilogy 4 0 II
oil  415, 435, 440 4–12 When dry8 II
phosmet Imidan 70W 3 days 7 1B I
pyrethrins PyGanic 1.4EC, 5.0EC 12 0 3A I
pyrethrins/piperonyl butoxide Pyrenone Crop Spray 12 When dry 3A/— I
pyridaben Nexter 12 7 21A I
pyriproxyfen Esteem 0.86EC, 12 1 7C II
pyriproxyfen (bait) Esteem Ant Bait 12 1 7C III
rosemary oil/peppermint oil Ecotrol EC 0 0 III
sabadilla Veratran D# 12 When dry II
spinetoram Delegate WG 4 1 5 II
spinosad Success, Entrust# 4 1 5 II
spirodiclofen Envidor 2SC 12 7 23 II
spirotetramat Movento 24 1 23 II
sodium ferric edta Ferroxx 0 0
thiamethoxam (soil) Actara 12 0 4A I
thiamethoxam (foliar) Platinum 75SG 12 0 4A I
thiamethoxam/abamectin Agri-Flex 12 7 4A/6
thiamethoxam/chlorantraniliprole Voliam Flexi 12 1 4A/28
wettable sulfur# various 24 0 III
zeta-cypermethrin Mustang 12 1 3A I
Information not available
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
# Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
NA Not applicable; for use on nonbearing trees only.
1 Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (PHI) is the number of days from treatment until the orchard can be harvested. In some cases, the REI exceeds the PHI; the longer of these two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest may take place.
2 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers (un = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
3 Ratings are as follows: I—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering; II—Do not apply or allow to drift to plants that are flowering, except when the application is made between sunset and midnight if allowed by the pesticide label and regulations; III—No bee precaution, except when required by the pesticide label or regulations. For more information about pesticide synergistic effects, see Bee Precaution Pesticide Ratings.
4 Preharvest interval is 21 days for up to 7 pt/acre or 35 days for over 7 pt/acre and 28 days for ant control.
5 Do not apply during bloom because bees may be drawn to irrigation water.
6 Restricted entry interval is 40 days for low-volume sprays as authorized under a Special Local Needs permit.
7 Preharvest interval is 14 days when applied without oil and 60 days when applied with oil.
8 Special hazards are associated with oil treatments on green lemons; check label for preharvest interval.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus
UC ANR Publication 3441

General Pesticide Information

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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