How to Manage Pests
UC Pest Management Guidelines
Scientific Name: Papilio zelicaon
(Reviewed 2/17, updated 2/17)
In this Guideline:
Description of the Pest (View caterpillar ID key)
The California orangedog, or black anise swallowtail, is a native butterfly that feeds on both perennial anise (sweet fennel) and citrus. During its development, the caterpillar changes from a mottled brown to a whitish green and bright green with yellow and black spots on each segment. Mature larvae are about 1.5 inch (3.7 cm) long. When disturbed, all larval stages stick out orange-colored scent glands and give off a strong odor.
Orangedog caterpillars feed on tender citrus leaves, occasionally defoliating young trees but rarely causing economic damage in mature orchards.
Management of California orangedog may occasionally be necessary in young orchards. Use selective (i.e., those that are toxic only to a narrow group of insects) insecticides to conserve natural enemies.
Parasites are often highly effective in controlling California orangedog, especially the wasp Hyposoter sp.
California orangedog prefers sweet fennel, which may be interplanted as a trap crop in strips with citrus and mowed regularly after the egg-laying peak in each generation.
Organically Acceptable Methods
Use biological and cultural controls and sprays of Bacillus thuringiensis on organically managed citrus..
Monitoring and Treatment Decisions
If a pesticide application is needed for infestations of California orangedog on immature trees, Bacillus thuringiensis generally provides sufficient control.
UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines:
Insects, Mites, and Snails
E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, Lindcove Research and Extension Center, Exeter and Entomology, UC Riverside
Acknowledgments for contributions to Insect, Mite, and Snails:J. Barcinas, E.S.I., Corona, CA
R. Dunn, Badger Farming Co., Exeter, CA
J. Gorden, Pest Management Associates, Exeter, CA
C. E. Kallsen, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County
D. Machlitt, Consulting Entomology Services, Moorpark, CA
C. Musgrove, retired entomologist, Riverside, CA
K. Olsen, S & J Ranch, Pinedale, CA
N. V. O'Connell, UC Cooperative Extension, Tulare County
P. A. Phillips, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, Ventura County
T. Roberts, E.S.I., Corona, CA
T. Shea, UC Cooperative Extension, Riverside County
J. Stewart, Pest Management Associates, Exeter, CA
P. Washburn, Washburn & Sons Citrus Pest Control, Riverside, CA