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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Celery to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 10/05, updated 6/08)

In this Guideline:

Common name (trade name) Mode of Action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H II long to predatory mites and affected insects
acephate (Orthene) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I intermediate
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A broad (insects) 7 8 M III moderate
azadirachtin (AZA-Direct, Neemix) 18B broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
cyromazine (Trigard) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III none
endosulfan (Thionex) 2A broad (insects, mites) L/M M M II short
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworm, cutworms) L I9
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) M M M IV short
Malathion (EC) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H II moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
oxamyl (Vydate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H II10 moderate
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L11 L L III short
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L III short
pyrethrin/rotenone (Pyrellin E.C.) 3/21 broad (insects) H III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) L M12 L/M III moderate13
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) L M12 L/M III short to moderate12
tebufenozide (Confirm) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L III short
thiodicarb (Larvin) 1A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate

H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information

1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
9 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
10 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
11 Rating depends on rate used.
12 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
13  Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



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UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Celery
UC ANR Publication 3439
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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