How to Manage Pests

Pests in Gardens and Landscapes


Edema is a physiological disorder. Symptoms usually occur on the lower leaf surfaces. Yellowish brown or rust-color galls appear on leaves. Galls may take on a rough or corky appearance.


Damage is aesthetic and does not threaten plant health. Low temperatures, high humidity, high soil moisture, and low nutrition favor the disorder. If possible, reduce humidity and soil moisture. Maintain a proper fertilization program.

Oedema blisters on kalanchoe leaf
Edema blisters on kalanchoe leaf

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

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