Perennial Weeds

  • Bermudagrass
  • Field bindweed
  • Johnsongrass
  • Purple nutsedge
  • Strawberry clover
  • White clover
Click on photos to enlarge. Use the photos below to identify weeds in the field. Names link to more on identification and biology.
Seedling of bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, at the two-leaf stage.


(Cynodon dactylon): Grass family; first leaves with somewhat rough surface; ligule surrounded by ring of hairs with tuft of long hairs on either side; auricles absent; stem flat, wiry, and without hairs.

Seedling of field bindweed (wild morningglory), Convolvulus arvensis.

Field bindweed

(Convolvulus arvensis): Morningglory family; with most new shoots and seedlings emerging in spring; seed leaves nearly square, with shallow notch at tip; early true leaves spade shaped; petioles flattened.

Rhizomes of johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense.


(Sorghum halepense): Grass family; persists and spreads via underground stems (rhizomes), which are thick, fleshy, and segmented; roots and shoots can rise from each rhizome segment; leaves have a prominent whitish midvein.

Tubers and rhizomes of purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus.

Purple nutsedge

(Cyperus rotundus): Sedge family; (young plant shown here) young shoot is somewhat stiff, upright, and light green with a fairly prominent whitish midvein; no auricle or ligule; triangular stem solid or pithy and rarely hollow as in grasses.

Strawberry clover Trifolium fragiferum flowers and leaves.

Strawberry clover

(Trifolium fragiferum): Pea family; later leaves (shown) divide into three leaflets which are longer and narrower than those of white clover T. repens and lack a white band on the leaflet.

Seedling of white sweetclover, Melilotus alba, at the four-leaf stage.

White clover

(Trifolium repens): Pea family; seed leaves spatulate, smooth; blades taper into petiole; first leaf simple, truncated at base, round to broadly oval; later leaves with 3 leaflets per leaf, smooth, alternate, lower surface gray green, upper surface green; usually light green splotch near base of each leaflet.

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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