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Summer Annual Weeds You May See—Fruit Development

Each name links to more information on identification and biology.

Click on photos to enlarge
Barnyard grass.
(Echinochloa crus-galli): Grass family; summer annual; first leaf dull gray-green; stem flattened, purplish; no ligule.
Black nightshade.
Black nightshade
(Solanum nigrum): Nightshade family; summer annual; seed leaves oval and pointed; first true leaves spade shaped with smooth edges; lower surfaces often purple; petioles stems and leaves with some hairs.
Burning nettle.
Burning nettle (Urtica urens): Nettle family; winter or summer annual; rounded seed leaves with smooth margin and small notch at tip; first true leaves with small notch at tip, opposite, stalked, and distinctly toothed.
Common purslane.
Common purslane
(Portulaca oleracea): Purslane family; summer annual; seed leaves oblong, somewhat club shaped, succulent, maroon on lower surface, and green or maroon on upper surface; young leaves smooth, succulent, oblong, green on upper-surface, maroonish underneath, and broadest around leaf tip, with short petioles.
Hairy fleabane.
Hairy fleabane
(Conyza bonariensis): Sunflower family; summer annual; seed leaves gray-green; first leaves narrow and covered with short, soft hairs; often wrinkled or distorted.
(Conyza canadensis): Sunflower family; summer annual; seed leaves dull green, oval with fine hairs, their short stalks sometimes tinged with dull brown-purple; first true leaves covered with hairs on upper surface and margins; undersides of early leaves smooth.
Large crabgrass.
Large crabgrass
(Digitaria sanguinalis): Grass family; summer annual; first leaf blade linear to lance shaped, with stiff, jagged, and papery ligule; hairs on margins of the collar wide; no auricles; leaves covered with coarse hairs; leaves rolled in bud.
(Ipomoea spp.): Morningglory family; summer annual; seed leaves deeply notched; heart-shaped first true leaves with deep lobes at base; stem below seed leaves maroon at base and green toward leaf tip.
Prostrate pigweed.
Prostrate pigweed
(Amaranthus blitoides): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves are narrow, pointed and 6 to 8 times longer than broad; undersides are magenta; first true leaves are broader, with shiny upper surface and usually magenta-tinged undersides; edges somewhat rough.
(Tribulus terrestris): Caltrop family; summer annual; seed leaves thick, brittle, 2 to 3 times longer than wide; petioles pinkish; true leaves dark green with grayish underside and rough margins.
Purple cudweed
(Gnaphalium purpureum): Sunflower family; winter annual, summer annual, or biennial; seed leaves and first true leaves covered on both sides with whitish hairs; seed leaves 2 to 3 times longer than wide.
Spotted spurge.
Spotted spurge
(Chamaesyce maculata): Spurge family; summer annual; seed leaves oval, tips roundish, blue-green with smooth margin; first true leaves rounded, leaf surface smooth and dull, dark green with reddish tinge.
Bearded sprangletop
(Leptochloa fasicularis): Grass family; summer annual; first leaves light green, usually with white midrib; blades somewhat rolled; sheaths loose near base of plant; ligule long, thin, membranous and tears easily.
Tall annual willowherb.
Tall annual willowherb
(Epibolium brachycarpum): Primrose family; summer annual; seed leaves small, round, often dark reddish green; true leaves narrow, 4 to 5 times longer than wide, first true leaves opposite and smooth around edges.
Yellow foxtail.
Yellow foxtail
(Setaria pumila): Grass family; summer annual; first blade linear, roughly 7 times longer than wide and opens almost parallel to ground; leaves rolled in bud; ligule—fringe of hairs; no auricles; no hairs on leaf-sheath margin below collar; leaf blades of young seedlings smooth on lower surface, with long hairs on basal area of upper surface; margins smooth or slightly rough.
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