Cole Crops

Winter Annual Weeds

  • Annual sowthistle
  • Burning nettle
  • Common chickweed
  • Common groundsel
  • Littleseed canarygrass
  • Little mallow (cheeseweed)
  • London rocket
  • Mustards
  • Pineappleweed
  • Prickly lettuce
  • Rabbitfoot polypogon
  • Shepherd's-purse
  • Wild oat
  • Wild radish
Click on photos to enlarge. Names link to more information on identification and management.
Annual sowthistle seedling.

Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual; seed leaves markedly stalked, almost spoon-shaped, rounded at tip and often have grayish powdery bloom; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.

Burning nettle seedling.

Burning nettle (Urtica urens): Nettle family; winter or summer annual; rounded seed leaves with smooth margin and small notch at tip; first true leaves with small notch at tip, opposite, stalked, and distinctly toothed.

Seedling of common chickweed, Stellaria media.

Common chickweed (Stellaria media): Pink family; seed leaves with prominent midveins, about 4 times longer than wide, tapering to point at tip; true leaves broader, opposite, and yellow-green.

Seedling of common groundsel, Senecio vulgaris.

Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris): Sunflower family; winter annual, but seedlings can be present anytime at cool, moist locations; seed leaves narrow, with blunt narrow tip; first true leaves with shallow teeth; third and fourth leaves more deeply lobed.

Seedling of littleseed canarygrass, Mediterranean canarygrass, Phalaris minor.

Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor): Grass family; first leaves bluish green; large, white ligule inside the leaf blade where its base wraps the stem; leaf sheath with a reddish base; crown and primary root of seedling distinctly reddened.

Little mallow, Malva parviflora, seedling.

Little mallow (Cheeseweed) (Malva parviflora): Mallow family; seed leaves heart shaped, sometimes with red tinge; true leaves roundish with wavy, shallow-toothed margins.

Seedling of London rocket, Sisymbrium irio, at the four-leaf stage.

London rocket (Sisymbrium irio): Mustard family; seedlings narrow with long stalks; first true leaf oval, margins smooth or with a few weak teeth; subsequent few leaves similar but with shallow-toothed margins; young plants have deeply lobed leaves.

Mustard seedling.

Mustards (Brassica spp.): Mustard family; all mustard seedlings with broad seed leaves and deep notch at tip; first true leaves bright green on the upper surface and paler below.

Seedling of pineapple-weed, Chamomilla suaveolens, at the four-leaf stage.

Pineappleweed (Chamomilla suaveolens): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual; seed leaves narrowly oblong to linear, fused at base, pointed or rounded at the tip; first true leaves opposite, smooth-edged or with feather-like lobes; later leaves alternate, with feather-like lobes, forming a rosette.

Seedling of prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola.

Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual or biennial; seed leaves about 2 times longer than wide; first true leaves with rounded margins; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.

Seedling of rabbitfoot polypogon, Polypogon monspeliensis, at the three-leaf stage.

Rabbitfoot polypogon (Polypogon monspeliensis): Grass family; seedling leaves are yellow-green and slender; ligules are membranous, thin, and have a pointy, ragged tip; no auricles; sheaths are open.

Shepherd's-purse seedling.

Shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris): Mustard family; seed leaves pale green with tiny granules on surface; first true leaves with smooth margins; fourth and later leaves may be indented; true leaves covered with star-shaped hairs.

Seedling of wild oat, Avena fatua.

Wild oat (Avena fatua): Grass family; first leaves with small marginal hairs and counterclockwise twist when viewed from above; ligule large, papery, and pointed.

Wild radish seedling, Raphanus raphanistrum.

Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum): Mustard family; seed leaves broad with deep notch at tip; first true leaves irregularly lobed and sometimes with separate lobes at leaf base; seedlings similar to mustards in genus Brassica, but duller green and rougher textured.

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