Cole Crops

Summer Annual Weeds

  • Annual sowthistle
  • Barnyardgrass
  • Black nightshade
  • Burning nettle
  • Common lambsquarters
  • Common purslane
  • Groundcherries
  • Hairy nightshade
  • Nettleleaf goosefoot
  • Pineappleweed
  • Prickly lettuce
  • Prostrate knotweed
  • Redroot pigweed
Click on photos to enlarge. Names link to more information on identification and management.
Annual sowthistle seedling.

Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual; seed leaves markedly stalked, almost spoon-shaped, rounded at tip and often have grayish powdery bloom; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.

Seedling of barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli.

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) Grass family; first leaf dull gray green; stem flattened, purplish; no ligule.

Black nightshade seedling.

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum): Nightshade family; summer annual or short-lived perennial; seed leaves oval and pointed; first true leaves spade shaped with smooth edges; lower surfaces often purple; petioles stems and leaves with some hairs.

Burning nettle seedling.

Burning nettle (Urtica urens): Nettle family; winter or summer annual; rounded seed leaves with smooth margin and small notch at tip; first true leaves with small notch at tip, opposite, stalked, and distinctly toothed.

Seedling of common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album.

Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album): Goosefoot family; seed leaves are narrow, with nearly parallel sides; seed leaves and early true leaves dull blue green above and often purple below; young leaves have mealy appearance from coating of fine translucent granules.

Seedling of common purslane, Portulaca oleracea.

Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea): Purslane family; seed leaves oblong, somewhat club shaped, succulent, maroon on lower surface, and green or maroon on upper surface; young leaves smooth, succulent, oblong, green on upper surface, maroonish underneath, and broadest around leaf tip, with short petioles.

Groundcherry seedling.

Groundcherries (Physalis spp.): Nightshade family; summer annual or perennial; seed leaves yellow green to gray green; first leaves oval to triangular, with smooth or slightly wavy margins, and a strong odor when crushed.

Hairy nightshade seedling.

Hairy nightshade (Solanum physalifolium=Solanum sarrachoides): Nightshade family; seed leaves narrow, small, and lance shaped with very short soft hairs along edges; first true leaves with wavy edges and prominent veins.

Seedling of nettleleaf goosefoot.

Nettleleaf goosefoot (Chenopodium murale): Goosefoot family; seed leaves oblong to narrowly lance shaped, dark green; true leaves weakly toothed, leaf surfaces, especially lower surface, sparsely covered with tiny dotlike scales.

Seedling of pineapple-weed, Chamomilla suaveolens, at the four-leaf stage.

Pineappleweed (Chamomilla suaveolens): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual; seed leaves narrowly oblong to linear, fused at base, pointed or rounded at the tip; first true leaves opposite, smooth-edged or with feather-like lobes; later leaves alternate, with feather-like lobes, forming a rosette.

Seedling of prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola.

Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual or biennial; seed leaves about 2 times longer than wide; first true leaves with rounded margins; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.

Seedling of common knotweed (prostrate knotweed), Polygonum arenastrum.

Prostrate knotweed (Polygonum arenastrum): Knotweed family; seed leaves are long, very narrow, rounded at the tip and light green with a white cast; true leaves are much broader, emerging from an encircling, membranous sheath at the leaf base.

Redroot pigweed seedlings.

Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus): Pigweed family; seed leaves long and narrow with red undersides; first true leaves with notched tips and much broader than seed leaves.


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