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Winter Annual Broadleaf Weed Seedlings

On this page
  • Annual sowthistle
  • Burning nettle
  • Common chickweed
  • Common knotweed
  • Common groundsel
  • Henbit
  • Fiddlenecks
  • Little mallow
  • London rocket
  • Mustards
  • Prickly lettuce
  • Purple cudweed
  • Shepherd's-purse
  • Whitestem filaree
  • Wild radish

Names link to more information on identification and biology.

Click on photos to enlarge

Chickweed seedling.
Common chickweed
(Stellaria media): Pink family; winter annual; seed leaves with prominent midveins, about 4 times longer than wide, tapering to point at tip; true leaves broader, opposite, and yellow-green.

				filaree seedling.
Whitestem filaree
(Erodium moschatum): Geranium family; winter annual or biennial; seed leaves 3- to 4-lobed, center lobe largest; true leaves arranged as opposite or alternate; leaves and stems bristly and hairy.

Seedling of California burclover
Common knotweed
(Polygonum arenastrum): Knotweed family; annual or short-lived perennial, germinates during fall or spring; seed leaves are long, very narrow, rounded at the tip and light green with a white cast; true leaves are much broader, emerging from an encircling, membranous sheath at the leaf base.

Seedling of purple 
				cudweed, Gnaphalium purpureum, at the four-leaf stage.
Purple cudweed
(Gnaphalium purpureum): Sunflower family; winter annual, summer annual, or biennial; seed leaves and first true leaves covered on both sides with whitish hairs; seed leaves 2 to 3 times longer than wide.

Henbit seedling, 
				Lamium amplexicaule.
(Lamium amplexicaule): Mint family; winter annual; seedling leaves small, oblong, with smooth margins and distinct notch at base where blade meets petiole; first true leaves rounded, coarsely toothed, with visible netted veins.

Seedling of coast 
(Amsinckia spp.): Borage family; winter annual; Y-shaped seed leaves with tiny blisters and a few fine hairs; early leaves with coarse, sharp hairs, and 4 to 6 times longer than wide.
Seedling of common 
				groundsel, Senecio vulgaris.
Common groundsel
(Senecio vulgaris): Sunflower family; winter annual, but seedlings can be present anytime at cool, moist locations; seed leaves narrow, with blunt narrow tip; first true leaves with shallow teeth; third and fourth leaves more deeply lobed.
Seedling of 
				prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola.
Prickly lettuce
(Lactuca serriola): Sunflower family; winter annual or biennial; seed leaves about 2 times longer than wide; first true leaves with rounded margins; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.

Annual sowthistle 
Annual sowthistle
(Sonchus oleraceus): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual; seed leaves markedly stalked, almost spoon-shaped, rounded at tip and often have grayish powdery bloom; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.

Little mallow, Malva 
				parviflora, seedling.
Little mallow (Cheeseweed)
(Malva parviflora): Mallow family; winter annual; seed leaves heart shaped, sometimes with red tinge; true leaves roundish with wavy, shallow-toothed margins.
Burning nettle 
Burning nettle
(Urtica urens): Nettle family; winter or summer annual; rounded seed leaves with smooth margin and small notch at tip; first true leaves with small notch at tip, opposite, stalked, and distinctly toothed.
(Brassica spp.): Mustard family; winter annual; all mustard seedlings with broad seed leaves and deep notch at tip; first true leaves bright green on the upper surface and paler below.
Seedling of London 
				rocket, Sisymbrium irio, at the four-leaf stage.
London rocket
(Sisymbrium irio): Mustard family; winter annual; seedlings narrow with long stalks; first true leaf oval, margins smooth or with a few weak teeth; subsequent few leaves similar but with shallow-toothed margins; young plants have deeply lobed leaves.
Shepherd's-purse seedling.
(Capsella bursa-pastoris): Mustard family; winter annual; seed leaves pale green with tiny granules on surface; first true leaves with smooth margins; fourth and later leaves may be indented; true leaves covered with star-shaped hairs.
Wild radish seedling, 
				Raphanus raphanistrum .
Wild radish
(Raphanus raphanistrum): Mustard family; winter annual; seed leaves broad with deep notch at tip; first true leaves irregularly lobed and sometimes with separate lobes at leaf base; seedlings similar to mustards in genus Brassica, but duller green and rougher textured.

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