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Summer Annual and Perennial Broadleaf Seedlings

On this page
  • Burning nettle
  • Black nightshade
  • Common cocklebur
  • Common groundsel
  • Common knotweed
  • Common lambsquarters
  • Common purslane
  • Cutleaf evening primrose
  • Field bindweed (perennial)
  • Groundcherries
  • Hairy fleabane
  • Hairy nightshade
  • Horseweed
  • Morningglories
  • Prostrate pigweed
  • Purple cudweed
  • Puncturevine
  • Redroot pigweed
  • Russian thistle
  • Spotted spurge
  • Tumble pigweed
  • Turkey mullein

Names link to more information on identification and biology.

Click on photos to enlarge

Burning nettle 
Burning nettle
(Urtica urens): Nettle family; winter or summer annual; rounded seed leaves with smooth margin and small notch at tip; first true leaves with small notch at tip, opposite, stalked, and distinctly toothed.

Seedling of common 
				groundsel, Senecio vulgaris.
Common groundsel
(Senecio vulgaris): Sunflower family; winter annual, but seedlings can be present anytime at cool, moist locations; seed leaves narrow, with blunt narrow tip; first true leaves with shallow teeth; third and fourth leaves more deeply lobed.
Seedling of common 
Common cocklebur
(Xanthium strumarium): Sunflower family; summer annual; seed leaves bright green, shiny on upper surface, pointed, and about 6 times longer than wide; true leaves on seedlings notched on margins and taper to leaf tip; bur may remain attached to base of seedling.
Seedling of 
				hairy fleabane, Conyza bonariensis, at the four-leaf stage.
Hairy fleabane
(Conyza bonariensis): Sunflower family; summer annual; seed leaves gray green; first leaves narrow and covered with short, soft hairs; often wrinkled or distorted.
Seedling of 
				horseweed, Conyza canadensis, at the four-leaf stage.
(Conyza canadensis): Sunflower family; summer annual; seed leaves dull green, oval with fine hairs, and with short stalks that sometimes may be tinged brown purple; first true leaves covered with hairs on upper surface and margins; undersides of early leaves smooth.
Seedling of purple 
				cudweed, Gnaphalium purpureum, at the four-leaf stage.
Purple cudweed
(Gnaphalium purpureum): Sunflower family; winter annual, summer annual, or biennial; seed leaves and first true leaves covered on both sides with whitish hairs; seed leaves 2 to 3 times longer than wide.
(Physalis spp.): Nightshade family; summer annual or perennial; seed leaves yellow green to gray green; first leaves oval to triangular, with smooth or slightly wavy margins, and a strong odor when crushed.
				nightshade seedling.
Black nightshade
(Solanum nigrum): Nightshade family; summer annual or short-lived perennial; seed leaves oval and pointed; first true leaves spade shaped with smooth edges; lower surfaces often purple; petioles stems and leaves with some hairs.
				nightshade seedling.
Hairy nightshade
(Solanum physalifolium=Solanum sarrachoides): Nightshade family; summer annual; seed leaves narrow, small, and lance shaped with very short soft hairs along edges; first true leaves with wavy edges and prominent veins.
Seedling of 
				prostrate pigweed, Amaranthus blitoides, at the two-leaf stage.
Prostrate pigweed
(Amaranthus blitoides): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves narrow, pointed, 6 to 8 times longer than wide, with magenta undersides; first true leaves broader, with shiny upper surface and usually magenta-tinged undersides; edges somewhat rough.
				pigweed seedlings.
Redroot pigweed
(Amaranthus retroflexus): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves long and narrow with red undersides; first true leaves with notched tips and much broader than seed leaves.
				of tumble pigweed, Amaranthus albus.
Tumble pigweed
(Amaranthus albus): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves 3 to 5 times longer than wide, bright green on surface, magenta on underside; first true leaves spatulate, dark green with wavy margins, red color underneath; midrib with notched tip and bristle at end.
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Turkey mullein
Turkey mullein
(Croton (=Eremocarpus) setigerus): Spurge family; summer annual; seed leaves oval; first true leaves oval to heart-shaped; leaves covered with star-shaped hairs, which give the plant a gray-green, mealy appearance.

				spurge seedling.
Spotted spurge
(Euphorbia (=Chamaesyce) maculata): Spurge family; summer annual; seed leaves oval, tips roundish, blue green with smooth margin; first true leaves rounded, leaf surface smooth and dull, dark green with reddish tinge.
Seedling of California burclover
Common knotweed
(Polygonum arenastrum): Knotweed family; summer annual or short-lived perennial with fall or spring seedlings; seed leaves are long, very narrow, rounded at the tip and light green with a white cast; true leaves are much broader, emerging from an encircling, membranous sheath at the leaf base.
Seedling of common 
					purslane, Portulaca oleracea.
Common purslane
(Portulaca oleracea): Purslane family; summer annual; seed leaves oblong, narrower at base or somewhat club shaped; first true leaves smooth, oblong, broadest around leaf tip, petioles short or absent; seed leaves and true leaves succulent, dark purple or reddish on lower surface; upper surface green or green and dark red to purplish.
				of common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album.
Common lambsquarters
(Chenopodium album): Goosefoot family; summer annual; seed leaves are narrow, with nearly parallel sides; seed leaves and early true leaves dull blue green above and often purple below; young leaves have mealy appearance from coating of  fine translucent granules.

Russian thistle seedlign
Russian thistle
(Salsola tragus): Goosefoot family; summer annual; cotyledons and first true leaves  long and thin; first leaves are fleshy, soft, and weakly spine-tipped; stems slender and flexible, often with reddish purple striations along their length.

Puncturevine seedling.
(Tribulus terrestris): Caltrop family; summer annual; seed leaves thick, brittle, 2 to 3 times longer than wide; petioles pinkish; true leaves dark green with grayish underside and rough margins.
Seedling of 
				annual morningglory, Ipomoea sp.
(Ipomoea spp.): Morningglory family; summer annuals or perennials; seed leaves deeply notched; heart-shaped first true leaves with deep lobes at base; stem below seed leaves maroon at base and green toward leaf tip.

Cutleaf evening primrose seedling
Cutleaf eveningprimrose
(Oenothera laciniata): Evening primrose family; summer annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial; seed leaves ovate-elliptical; bases tapered to a stalk on seed leaves and first true leaves; first true leaves elliptical, alternate, with short veins that are often pale.

Seedling of field bindweed
Field bindweed (perennial)
(Convolvulus arvensis): Morningglory family; perennial, with most new shoots and seedlings emerging in spring; seed leaves nearly square, with shallow notch at tip; early true leaves spade shaped; petioles flattened.

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