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Summer Annual Weed Seedlings You May See

Weeds in tree rows must be managed. Annual weeds in row middles may be beneficial, but before shaking weeds must be managed to provide a clean and smooth orchard floor.

Use the late spring weed survey form (99 KB, PDF) to record your weed observations in order to make weed management decisions. Keep these records so that you can track weed population information from year to year to better understand ongoing weed control problems such as resistance.

Names link to more information on identification and biology.

Click on photos to enlarge
(Echinochloa colona): Grass family; summer annual; grayish, dull green first leaves; several purple bands on surface of leaf blade; no ligule, no auricle.
Seedling of common purslane, Portulaca oleracea.
Common purslane
(Portulaca oleracea): Purslane family; summer annual; seed leaves oblong, somewhat club shaped, succulent, maroon on lower surface, and green or maroon on upper surface; young leaves smooth, succulent, oblong, green on upper surface, maroonish underneath, and broadest around leaf tip, with short petioles.
Seedling of annual morningglory, Ipomoea sp.
(Ipomoea spp.): Morningglory family; summer annuals or perennials; seed leaves deeply notched; heart-shaped first true leaves with deep lobes at base; stem below seed leaves maroon at base and green toward leaf tip.
Seedling of hairy fleabane, Conyza bonariensis, at the four-leaf stage.
Hairy fleabane
(Conyza bonariensis): Sunflower family; summer annual or biennial; seed leaves gray green; first leaves narrow and covered with short, soft hairs; often wrinkled or distorted.
Seedling of horseweed, Conyza canadensis, at the four-leaf stage.
(Conyza canadensis): Sunflower family; summer annual or biennial; seed leaves dull green, oval with fine hairs, and with short stalks that sometimes may be tinged brown-purple; first true leaves covered with hairs on upper surface and margins; undersides of early leaves smooth.
Spotted spurge seedling.
Spotted spurge
(Euphorbia maculata=Chamaesyce maculata): Spurge family; summer annual; seed leaves oval, tips roundish, blue green with smooth margin; first true leaves rounded, leaf surface smooth and dull, dark green with reddish tinge.
Bearded sprangletop seedling, Leptochloa fascicularis.
Bearded sprangletop
(Leptochloa fasicularis): Grass family; summer annual; first leaves light green, usually with white midrib; blades somewhat rolled; sheaths loose near base of plant; ligule long, thin, membranous and tears easily.
Seedling of panicle-leaf willowherb, Epilobium brachycarpum, at the four-leaf stage.
Tall annual willowherb
(Epibolium brachycarpum): Evening primrose family; summer annual; seed leaves small, round, often dark reddish green; true leaves narrow, 4 to 5 times longer than wide, first true leaves opposite and smooth around edges.

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Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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