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Educational Materials: Detailed Descriptions

Second Edition
Integrated Pest Management for Almonds

Published 2002 · Publication 3308 · 199 pages

How to order
List of contents

Photo of cover of the book, Integrated Pest Management for Almonds.

This expanded second edition, revised in 2007, is a comprehensive and practical guide that contains biological, ecological, and management information for more than 120 vertebrate, insect, mite, pathogen, and weed pests occurring in almond orchards in California. More than 30 University of California researchers, Cooperative Extension specialists, farm advisors, and pest control professionals contributed to the content.

The book provides an ecological framework for making pest management decisions. It covers the development and growth requirements of the almond tree and general management techniques, including identification, field monitoring, control action guidelines, cultural controls, biological controls, and the use of pesticides in an integrated pest management program.

Vertebrate pests include ground squirrels, pocket gophers, mice, rabbits, deer, coyotes, and birds. Among the insect and mite pests are navel orangeworm, peach twig borer, San Jose scale, olive scale, European fruit lecanium, mites, oriental fruit moth, borers, ants, stink bugs and other true bugs, carob moth, leafrollers, and tent caterpillars. Diseases include crown and root rots, trunk and branch cankers, vascular system diseases, branch foliage and/or fruit diseases, bud failure disorders, and environmentally caused diseases.

New in the Second Edition

  • Extensively revised chapter on vertebrate pest management adds recommendations for control techniques where endangered species occur
  • Revised and expanded chapter on vegetation management includes detailed information on cover crops
  • Revised section on navel orangeworm emphasizes cultural control techniques instead of insecticides
  • Revised section on peach twig borer includes discussions of bloomtime sprays with Bacillus thuringiensis and pheromone mating disruption
  • Ten new insect pests and diseases, including anthracnose, Alternaria leaf blight, rust, tenlined June beetle, and leafhoppers
  • Revised and updated tables on susceptibility of rootstocks and scion cultivars to major pests
  • 33 new color photos
  • Detailed index

Excellent Photographs

Readers can find 259 color photographs and 79 line drawings and tables that illustrate key features and symptoms helpful in diagnosing problems, identifying pests and natural enemies, and carrying out monitoring and sampling programs.

"Each chapter is profusely illustrated with line drawings and excellent...photographs."
—Mark Shelton, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.

Integrated Pest Management for Almonds, second edition, was written by Larry Strand, photographs are by Jack Kelly Clark, and Mary Louise Flint served as technical editor.

How to order

This publication is available from the UC ANR Communication Services catalog. It is also available by mail, by telephone, or through the ANR sales offices and many UC County Cooperative Extension offices. For locations and more information, see "How to Order Publications."

List of Contents

Integrated Pest Management for Almonds
The Almond Tree: Development and Growth Requirements
  • The Nonbearing Years · The Seasonal Cycle of Bearing Trees · Growth Requirements
Managing Pests in Almonds
  • Pest Identification · Orchard Monitoring (Monitoring Pests · Monitoring Weather · Accumulating Degree-Days) · Control Action Guidelines · Management Methods (Site Selection and Preparation · Soil Solarization · Cultivar and Rootstock Selection · Planting and Managing a New Orchard · Replanting in an Established or Bearing Orchard · Frost Protection · Water Management · Fertilization · Ground Covers · Pollination · Harvesting · Pruning · Sanitation · Biological Control · Pesticides)
  • Managing Vertebrate Pests · Ground Squirrels · Pocket Gophers · Eastern Fox Squirrel · Eastern Gray Squirrel · Voles (Meadow Mice) · Black-tailed Jackrabbit · Cottontail and Brush Rabbits · Mule Deer · Coyotes · Birds
Insects and Mites
  • Monitoring Insects and Mites (Monitoring Methods · Prevention and Management) · Navel Orangeworm · Carob Moth  · Peach Twig Borer · San Jose Scale · Olive Scale · European Fruit Lecanium · Mites (Webspinning Mites · European Red Mite · Brown Mite · Citrus Red Mite · Peach Silver Mite) · Pavement Ant · Southern Fire Ant · Oriental Fruit Moth · Peachtree Borer · American Plum Borer · Prune Limb Borer · Pacific Flatheaded Borer · Shothole Borer · Boxelder Bug · Leaffooted Bug · Tenlined June Beetle · Leafhoppers · Stink Bugs · Lace Bugs · Fruittree Leafroller · Obliquebanded Leafroller · Tent Caterpillars
  • Monitoring and Diagnosis of Almond Diseases · Prevention and Management · Root and Crown Rots (Phytophthora Crown and Root Rot · Crown Gall · Armillaria Root Root or Oak Root Fungus · Wood Rots) · Trunk and Branch Cankers (Ceratocystis Canker · Bacterial Canker · Foamy Canker · Band Canker) ·  Vascular System Diseases (Almond Leaf Scorch · Verticillium Wilt · Silver Leaf) · Branch, Foliage, and Fruit Diseases (Brown Rot Blossom and Twig Blight · Bacterial Blast · Shot Hole · Anthracnose · Rust · Alternaria Leaf Spot · Corky Spot · Almond Scab · Leaf Blight · Green Fruit Rot · Yellow Bud Mosaic · Hull Rot · Almond Brownline and Decline · Union Mild Etch and Decline · Almond Kernel Shrivel) · Bud Failure Disorders (Noninfectious Bud Failure · Infectious Bud Failure, Almond Calico · Nonproductive Syndrome · Dormant Bud Drop) ·  Environmentally Caused Diseases (Gumming, "Split-Pit," and Corky Growth · Nutritional Disorders · Herbicide Symptoms · Frost Damage · Wind Injury · Sunburn Damage)
  • Description and Damage (Root Knot Nematodes · Root Lesion Nematodes · Ring Nematode · Dagger Nematode) · Management Guidelines (Soil Sampling · Field Selection and Preparation — The "Replant Problem" · Soil Fumigation · Postplant Nematicides · Rootstock Selection · Fallow and Crop Rotation · Sanitation · Cover Crops)
Vegetation Management
  • Weed Management (Management Methods · Management during Orchard Establishment · Management in Established Orchards) ·  Weed Monitoring · Identifying Major Weed Species · Perennial Grasses and Sedges (Johnsongrass · Dallisgrass · Bermudagrass · Nutsedge) · Perennial Broadleaves (Curly Dock · Field Bindweed · Dandelion · White Clover) · Biennial Broadleaves (Little Mallow or Cheeseweed · Bristly Oxtongue) · Winter Annual Grasses (Annual Bluegrass · Wild Oat · Hare Barley or Wild Barley) · Winter Annual Broadleaves (Mustards · Wild Radish · Redmaids or Desert Rockpurslane · Common Chickweed · Burclover · Filaree) · Summer Annual Grasses (Barnyardgrass · Bearded Sprangletop · Large Crabgrass · Fall Panicum · Witchgrass) ·  Summer Annual Broadleaves (Common Knotweed · Spotted Spurge · Puncturevine · Common Purslane · Horseweed · Hairy Fleabane) · Cover Crops
Suggested Reading

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