2013 Highlights: UC IPM Annual Report

New vole IPM program in artichokes

Artichoke field showing simple fencing to keep voles from invading.

Once voles are removed from an artichoke field, fencing can keep them out. (Photo by D. Stetson.)


  • An IPM plan for managing voles in artichoke fields integrates monitoring with cultural, physical, and chemical methods for maximum effectiveness.
  • After harvest, chopping and aluminum phosphide reduce vole numbers.
  • Surrounding fields with fencing slows vole reinvasion.
  • Chlorophacinone-treated bracts are still the most effective rodenticide treatment.

UC IPM Advisor Roger Baldwin has developed an IPM plan for voles, the primary vertebrate pest affecting California’s $48 million artichoke crop. The IPM plan uses monitoring, cultural practices, exclusion, baiting, and fumigation to prevent damage from voles feeding on artichoke plants.

Baldwin’s research on ways to monitor for voles found that vole feeding on wax bait blocks is the best way to know if voles are in the fields.

If voles are in the fields in late spring, cultural control practices and burrow fumigation can be used at the end of the growing season. Chopping, a cultural practice that removes aboveground vegetation after harvest and kills voles, substantially reduced the number of voles found in the field. Following this with aluminum phosphide fumigation further reduced vole numbers. If a field will be replanted, discing also successfully reduced the number of voles.

Once voles are removed from the field, Baldwin suggests installing fences around fields to slow vole reinvasion. Black plastic mesh and aluminum flashing work well, especially if surrounded by bare soil.

When monitoring indicates vole numbers are increasing or fencing is not practical, Baldwin recommends using chlorophacinone-treated artichoke bracts in the winter.

Treating bracts with this rodenticide is a standard treatment for vole control. A 2001 study showed that voles in the Castroville area were not well-controlled using chlorophacinone. However, Baldwin observed in his recent research that chlorophacinone-treated bracts are still the most effective bait registered for vole control in artichokes. Starting baiting no later than mid-February gives the best control.

The Vertebrate Pest Control Research Advisory Committee sponsored Baldwin’s research project.

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2014 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   /IPMPROJECT/2013/artichokevole.html revised: July 10, 2014. Contact webmaster.